https://www.yourbrainonporn.com/relevant-research-and-articles-about-the-studies/brain-studies-on-porn-users-sex-addicts/#brain

Izifundo ze-Neurological on Porn Use

Ososayensi baye basebenzisa izifundo zezinzwa ukuze babheke imiphumela yezithombe zobulili ezingcolile basebenzisa amathuluzi kuhlanganise i-fMRI, i-MRI ne-EEG. Baye badala neuro-endocrine kanye neuro-pyschological izifundo. Leli khasi liye lashintshwa kusuka Yourbrainonporn.com. Sicela uvakashele Yourbrainonporn.com uma ufuna ukwaziswa okwengeziwe okujulile mayelana nosesho lwamuva emiphumeleni yokusetshenziswa kocansi.

Izifundo zezinzwa ezingezansi zihlelwe ngezindlela ezimbili. Okokuqala ngobuchopho obuhlobene nomlutha buyashintsha ngamunye kubikiwe. Ngezansi ukuthi izifundo ezifanayo zihlelwe ngosuku lokushicilelwa, ngezingcaphuno kanye nokucaciswa.

Izinhlu zokuguqulwa kobuchopho obuhlobene nomlutha: Izinguquko ezine ezinkulu zobuchopho ezibangelwa ukulutha umlutha zichazwe ngu UGeorge F. Koob futhi Nora D. Volkow ekubuyekezweni kwawo okuphawulekayo. UKoob unguMqondisi weNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), kanti uVolkow ungumqondisi weNational Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Lanyatheliswa kuyi-New England Journal of Medicine: Izinzuzo ze-Neurobiologic ezivela kwi-Brain Disease Model of Addiction (2016). Leli phepha lichaza izinguquko ezinkulu zobuchopho ezihilelekile kokubili izidakamizwa nezidakamizwa zokuziphatha, ngenkathi zichaza isigaba sokuqala sokuthi umlutha wezocansi ukhona:

"Siphetha ngokuthi i-neuroscience iyaqhubeka isekela uhlobo lwesifo sobuchopho. Ucwaningo lwe-neuroscience kule ndawo alugcini nje ngokunikeza amathuba amasha okuvimbela nokwelashwa kwezidakamizwa ezidakayo kanye nezidakamizwa eziphathelene nokuziphatha (isib. Ekudleni, sex, nokugembula) .... "

Iphepha le-Volkow ne-Koob lichaze izinguquko ezine eziyisisekelo ezibangelwa umlutha, okuyizi: 1) Ukukwazisa, 2) Ukungahlehlisi, 3) Izijikelezo zokungasebenzi ezingasebenzi (ukungazenzisi), i-4) Uhlelo lokucindezeleka olungasebenzi. Yonke i-4 yalezi zinguquko zengqondo ziye zafundwa phakathi kwezifundo eziningi zezinzwa ezibalulwe kuleli khasi:

  • Izifundo zokubika ukuzwela (ukucubungula / ukufunwa) kubasebenzisi be-porn / izidakamizwa zocansi: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21.
  • Izifundo zokubika ukungafuneki noma ukujwayela (okuholela ekubekezeleni) kubasebenzisi bezithombe zocansi / izidakamizwa zocansi: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
  • Ukucwaninga kokubikwa kokusebenza okumpofu kakhulu (ubuzenzisi) noma ishintshwe umsebenzi wokuzithandela kubasebenzisi be-porn / izidakamizwa zocansi: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.
  • Izifundo ezibonisa a uhlelo lokucindezeleka olungasebenzi kubasebenzisi be-porn / izidakamizwa zocansi: 1, 2, 3.

Izinhlu ngosuku lokushicilelwa: Uhlu olulandelayo luqukethe zonke izifundo zezinzwa ezishicilelwe kubasebenzisi be-porn kanye nezilonda zocansi. Ucwaningo ngalunye olubalwe ngezansi luhambisana nencazelo noma i-excerpt, futhi lubonisa ukuthi yikuphi ukuguqulwa kobuchopho obuhlobene no-4 (s) okuxoxiswane nakho okutholakele okuvumela:

1) Ukuphenya okuPhezulu kwezinto eziphambene nezimo ze-Impulsive Neuroanatomical zokuziphatha kocansi okuphoqelekile (I-Miner et al., 2009) - [i-circuit preferenceal circuits / umsebenzi ompofu] - Ucwaningo lwe-FMRI olubandakanya izidakamizwa ikakhulukazi zocansi. Ukucwaninga kubika ukuziphatha okungaqondakali emisebenzini ye-Go-NoGo kuma-addicts ocansini (abesilisa ocansini) uma kuqhathaniswa nabahlanganyeli bokulawula. Ama-Brain scans wembula ukuthi izidakamizwa zobulili zazihlehlisile udaba lwe-prefrontal cortex uma kuqhathaniswa nezilawuli. Okucaphuno:

Ngaphandle kwezinyathelo ezibalwe ngenhla, iziguli ze-CSB zibuye zibonise ukungathandeki okukhulu emsebenzini wokuziphatha, i-Go-No Go inqubo.

Imiphumela ibuye ikhombise ukuthi iziguli ze-CSB zikhombisa isifunda esiphakeme kakhulu esiphezulu se-frontal sisho ukungafani (MD) kunokulawula. Ukuhlaziywa okuhlanganyelwene kuboniswe ubudlelwane obubalulekile phakathi kokungalingani kanye nendawo engaphansi kwe-anisotrophy ye-fractional (FA) ne-MD, kodwa ayikho inhlangano enezilinganiso eziphakeme ezisesifundazwe. Ukuhlaziywa okunjalo kuboniswe ubudlelwane obubi obuphakathi kwe-frontal lobe MD kanye ne-compulsive behavior behavior inventory.

2) Ukungafani okubikwayo ngezinyathelo zomsebenzi ophezulu kanye nokuziphatha kocansi phakathi kwesimuli nesiguli samadoda (Reid et al., 2010) - [umsebenzi ompofu omningi] - Isiqephu:

Iziguli ezifuna usizo lokuziphatha okubi ngokocansi zivame ukuveza izici zokungahambi kahle, ukuqina komqondo, ukugwema okubi, ukulahlekelwa ngokomthetho, nokukhathazeka ngokweqile ngesondo. Ezinye zalezi zici zibuye zivame phakathi kweziguli ezethula nge-neurolotic pathology ezihlobene nokuhlukumeza okuphezulu. Lezi zinkolelo zaholela ekuphenyweni kwamanje phakathi kweqembu leziguli ezingcolile ngokobulili (n = 87) kanye nesampula yomphakathi ongewona ocansini (n = 92) yamadoda asebenzisa ukulinganisa ukulinganisa ukuziphatha kwe-Performance Function-Adult Version ukuziphatha okungafani nokuxhumene nobudlelwane obuhle behambisana kahle kanye nezinkomba zomhlaba jikelele zokungasebenzi kahle kanye nezinhlawulo eziningana ze-BRIEF-A. Lezi zithole zinikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokusekela umbono wokuthi ukukhubazeka okuphezulu kungabandakanyeka ekuziphatheni okungezansi ngokocansi.

3) Ukubuka Izithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Ku-intanethi: Indima Yokulinganisa Ngokweqhaza Yezocansi kanye Nezimo Zengqondo-I-Psychiatric for Ukusebenzisa Ama-Sex Sites E-Inthanethi ngokweqile (I-Brand et al., 2011) - [ukuthanda / ukukhushulwa okukhulu kanye nomsebenzi ompofu] - Isiqephu:

Imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi izinkinga ezibikwa ngokuzimela ekuphileni kwakho kwansuku zonke ezihlobene nemisebenzi yezocansi e-intanethi zabikezelwa ukulinganisa okuhloswe ngokobulili okubonakalayo kwezinto ezibucayi, ukuqina okukhulu kwezimpawu zengqondo, kanye nenani lezinhlelo zobulili ezisetshenziselwa ukuhlala kumasayithi ezocansi e-Internet ekuphileni kwansuku zonke, ngenkathi isikhathi esichithwa kumasayithi ezocansi e-intanethi (amaminithi ngosuku) asizange ibambe iqhaza ekuchazeni ukuhlukahluka kwinqephu ye-IATsex. Sibona ukufana okukhona phakathi kwezinqubo zokucabangela nezengqondo ezingase zibe nomthelela ekulondolozeni ucansi lwe-inthanethi ngokweqile nalabo abachazwe kubantu abancike ngokweqile.

4) Isithombe se-Pornographic Ukucubungula ama-interferes ngokusebenza komsebenzi wokukhumbula (Laier et al., 2013) - [ukuthanda / ukukhushulwa okukhulu kanye nomsebenzi ompofu] - Isiqephu:

Abanye abantu babika izinkinga ngesikhathi futhi ngemuva kokubandakanyeka kobulili e-intanethi, njengokulala okulahlekile nokukhohlwa ukuqashwa, okuhlobene nemiphumela emibi yokuphila. Enye indlela engase iholele kulezi zinhlobo zinkinga ukuthi ukuvota ngokocansi ngesikhathi sezocansi kwi-intanethi kungaphazamisa umthamo wokusebenza (WM), okwenza kube khona ukunganakwa kolwazi olumayelana nemvelo ngakho-ke ukuzenza izinqumo ezingalungile. Imiphumela ibonise ukuthi i-WM iyingozi kakhulu esimweni sezithombe zobulili ezingcolile komsebenzi we-4 emuva uma kuqhathaniswa nezimo zesithombe ezisele ezisele. Okutholakele kuxoxwa mayelana nokulutha kwe-intanethi ngoba ukuphazamiseka kwe-WM ngemigomo ehlobene nokulutha izidakamizwa kuyaziwa ngokusuka kwezidakamizwa.

5) Ama-Interferes Okucubungula Ngesithombe Sobulili Ngokwenza Izinqumo Ngaphansi Kokungaboni kahle (Laier et al., 2013) - [ukuthanda / ukukhushulwa okukhulu kanye nomsebenzi ompofu] - Isiqephu:

Ukusebenza kwezinqumo kwakubi nakakhulu lapho izithombe zobulili zihlotshaniswa nekhadi eliyingozi ekuqhathaniswa nokusebenza lapho izithombe zobulili zixhunyaniswa nezinsika ezizuzayo. Ukuvusa okucatshangelwayo ngokobulili kuhlolisisa ubuhlobo phakathi komsebenzi womsebenzi kanye nokusebenza kwezinqumo. Lolu cwaningo lugcizelele ukuthi ukuvuswa kocansi kuphazamise ukwenziwa kwezinqumo, okungase kuchaze ukuthi kungani abanye abantu behlangabezana nemiphumela emibi ekuhloleni kokusebenzisa i-inthanethi.

6) Ukulutha kocansi lwe-Cyber: Ukuvuswa kocansi okuhlangenwe nakho lapho ubheka izithombe zobulili ezingcolile hhayi okwangempela-oxhumana nabo ngokobulili benza umehluko (Laier et al., 2013) - [ukuthanda / ukukhushulwa okukhulu kanye nomsebenzi ompofu] - Isiqephu:

Imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi izinkomba zokuvusa ngocansi nokufisa ukubhekwa kobulili be-intanethi ukuthambekela okubikezelwe ekubhekaneni nokuxilongwa kwe-inthanethi ocansini ekuqaleni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kuboniswe ukuthi abasebenzisi be-inthanethi bezinkinga zokuxoxa nge-inthanethi babika ukuvusa okukhulu kocansi nokufuna ukusabela okubangelwa isethulo se-pornography. Kuzo zombili izifundo, inamba kanye nekhwalithi exhumana nabo ngokoqobo ngokobulili ayengahlotshaniswa nokulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi. Imiphumela isekela ukuxhaswa kwezinto zokuzithokozisa, okuqala ukuqinisa, ukufunda izindlela, nokufisa ukuba yizinqubo ezifanele ekuthuthukiseni nasekugcinweni kokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cybersex. Okubi noma okungaqiniseki koxhumana nabo ngokoqobo ngokobulili abakwazi ukuchaza ngokugcwele ukulutha kwe-inthanethi ngocansi.

7) Isifiso socansi, hhayi ubuhlobo bobulili obuhlukile, buhlobene nezimpendulo ze-neurophysiological ezifakwe izithombe zobulili (Steele et al., 2013) - [ukucubungula okukhulu-ukusebenzisana okuhambisana nesifiso esingaphansi kocansi: ukuzwela kanye nokuhlala] - Lolu cwaningo lwe-EEG lwaluphelile kumaphephandaba njengobungqingili bokuthi kukhona ukubheja kocansi / ucansi. Akunjalo. Steele et al. I-2013 empeleni ikhombisa ukwesekwa kokubili ukulutha kwezidakamizwa kanye nokusebenzisa i-porn ekulawuleni phansi isifiso socansi. Kanjani? Ucwaningo lubike ukufundwa kwe-EEG ephakeme (ngokuhlobene nezithombe ezingathathi hlangothi) lapho izihloko zivezwa kancane ezithombeni zobulili ezingcolile. Izifundo zibonisa njalo ukuthi i-P300 ephakeme kwenzeka uma izilonda zivezwa ezinkomba (ezifana nezithombe) ezihlobene nokulutha kwayo.

Ngokuhambisana ne Ucwaningo lweCambridge University luhlola izinhlelo, lolu cwaningo lwe-EEG lubuye lubonise ukucubungula okukhulu kwe-porn ekuxhumaniseni nesifiso esingaphansi kocansi oluhlukanisiwe. Ukukubeka ngenye indlela - abantu abanomqondo ovulekile owenza ubuciko be-porn bekungcono kakhulu ukushaya indlwabu enecala kunokuba babe nobulili nomuntu wangempela. Ngokumangalisa, okhulumela ucwaningo Nicole Prause wathi abasebenzisi be-porn babevele babe "ne-libido ephezulu," kodwa imiphumela yocwaningo ithi okuphambene ngqo (isifiso sezifundo zezocansi ezithandanayo kwakuyehla ngokuphathelene nokusetshenziswa kwazo kocansi).

Bonke laba ababili Steele et al. okutholakele kubonisa ukuthi umsebenzi obalulekile wobuchopho obunamathekisthi (izithombe ezingcolile), kodwa ukuphindaphinda okuncane kumvuzo wemvelo (ubulili nomuntu). Bobabili yizimpawu zokulutha umlutha. Amaphepha ayisithupha abuyekezwa ngontanga achaza iqiniso: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Futhi bheka lokhu I-YBOP enkulu ihlaziya.

Ngaphandle kwezimangalo eziningi ezingasekelwa emaphephandabeni, kuphazamisa ukuthi isifundo se-Prause sika-2013 EGG sidlulise ukubuyekezwa kontanga, njengoba sibhekene nezimpikiswano ezinkulu zendlela: 1) izifundo ayingqayizivele (abesilisa, abesifazane, abangewona abesilisa nabesifazane); Izihloko ze-2) zikhona hhayi ukuhlolwa kwezifo zengqondo noma izidakamizwa; I-3) isifundo akukho iqembu lokulawula lokuqhathanisa; Imibuzo ye-4) akuqinisekisiwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-porn noma ukulutha kocansi.

8) Ukwakhiwa kobuchopho nokuxhumana okusebenzayo Okuhlangene Nezithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Ukusetshenziswa: I-Brain on Porn (Kuhn & Gallinat, 2014) - [ukuxoshwa, ukujwayeleka, kanye nezifunda ezithintekayo ezingasetshenzisiwe]. Lolu cwaningo lwe-Max Planck Institute lwama-fMRI lubike ukuthi ukutholakala kwe-3 kwezinzwa ze-1 kuqhathaniswa namazinga aphezulu okusetshenziswa kocansi: (2) inkinga encane yomshini wokuvuza umvuzo (i-dorsal striatum), (3) ukuvuselela okuncane komjikelezo wesifunda ngenkathi ubuka kancane ukuxhumana kwezithombe zocansi, (3) phakathi kwe-dorsal striatum ne-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Abacwaningi bahumusha ukutholakala kwe-XNUMX njengombonakaliso wemiphumela ye-exposure ye-porn-yesikhathi eside. Uthe isifundo,

Lokhu kuvumelana ne-hypothesis ukuthi ukuvezwa okukhulu kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kuholela ekulawuleni phansi phansi kwemibono ye-neural yemvelo kwisenzo sobulili.

Lapho echaza ukuxhumana okumpofu okusebenza phakathi kwe-PFC kanye ne-striatum isifundo sathi,

Ukungasebenzi kwalesi sigaba kuye kwahlotshaniswa nokukhetha okungalungile kokuziphatha, njengokufuna izidakamizwa, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kungaba nomphumela omubi ongenakho

Umbhali oholayo USimone Kühn ukhulume ngokukhulumela i-Max Planck:

Sicabanga ukuthi izihloko ezinezinhlelo zokuzijabulisa ezingcolile zidinga ukukhuthazwa okwandayo ukuze zithole isilinganiso esifanayo somvuzo. Lokhu kungasho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa njalo kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ngokweqile kudonsa uhlelo lwakho lomvuzo. Lokho kungafanelana ngokuphelele ne-hypothesis ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zomvuzo zidinga ukukhuthazwa okukhulayo.

9) Ama-Neural Correlates e-Sexual Cue Reactivity kuNobuntu abangenazo ngaphandle kokucindezela ngokocansi (ngaphandle kocansi)Voon et al., 2014) - [ukuzwela / ukucubungula-ukubuyisela kanye nokukhishwa kwesisusa] Okokuqala ochungechungeni lwezifundo zeCambridge University bathole uhlobo olufanayo lomsebenzi wezobuchopho eziluthayo (izihloko ze-CSB) njengoba kuboniswa izidakamizwa nezidakamizwa - ukucubungula okukhulu noma ukuvuselelwa. Umcwaningi oholayo Valerie Voon Wathi:

Kukhona umehluko ocacile emisebenzini yobuchopho phakathi kweziguli ezinokuziphatha okucindezelayo ngokocansi kanye nezisebenzi zokuzithandela ezinempilo. Lokhu kungezwani kuveza izidakamizwa ezidakamizwa.

I-Voon et al., I-2014 ithole nokuthi izilonda ezingcolile zihambisana imodeli evumelekile yokulutha yokufuna "it" ngaphezulu, kodwa hhayi ukuthanda "it" noma ngaphezulu. Umbhalo ocacile:

Uma kuqhathaniswa namavolontiya anempilo, izifundo ze-CSB zinezifiso ezingathí sina zobulili noma zifuna ukucacisa amagama futhi zinezici ezithandwayo ezikhudlwana ezinqumweni ezibucayi, ngaleyo ndlela zibonisa ukuhlukaniswa phakathi kokufuna nokuthanda

Abacwaningi baphinde babike ukuthi i-60% yezifundo (isilinganiso sobudala: 25) kunzima ukufeza ama-erections / ukuvusa nabalingani bangempela, kodwa kungase kutholakale izilungiselelo zokuzijabulisa nge-porn. Lokhu kubonisa ukuzwela noma ukujwayela. Okucaphuno:

Izihloko ze-CSB zibike ukuthi ngenxa yokusebenzisa ngokweqile izinto zokwenza ucansi ngokucacile ... .. okuhlangenwe nakho kwe-libido noma umsebenzi we-erectile wehlelwe ngokuqondile ebuhlotsheni obungokwenyama nabesifazane (nakuba kungekho ebuhlotsheni obubonakalayo ngokobulili) ...

Izihloko ze-CSB uma kuqhathaniswa namavolontiya anempilo ayebhekene nobunzima obunzima ngokuvuswa kobulili futhi ahlangabezane nobunzima obukhulu be-erectile ebuhlotsheni obusondelene nabo obucansi kodwa hhayi ekuziphatheni ngokocansi.

10) Ukuthuthukiswa Kwezimpawu Zokukhangisa Ngokuqondene Nezocansi Ezizimele Ngabantu Abangenazo ngaphandle Kokucindezela Ngokweqhaza Ngokwecansi (UMechelmans et al., 2014) - [ukuzwela / ukucubungula-reactivity] - Isifundo sesibili saseCambridge University. Ingcaphuno:

Ukutholakala kwethu kokuhlaziya okucatshangelwayo ... kusho ukuthi kungenzeka ukugqashuka ngokubheka okuthuthukisiwe okubheke ekuhlolisweni kwezidakamizwa ezibhekene nezidakamizwa. Lezi zitholakele zivumelanisa nokutholakala kwamuva kwe-neural reactivity ezichazweni zobulili [eziluthayo ezingcolile] kwinethiwekhi efana nalezo ezithintekayo ezifundweni zokusebenzisa izidakamizwa-futhi zihlinzeke ukwesekwa kokugqugquzela izintshisekelo zokulutha umlutha ezisekelwe ekuphenduleni okungezansi emibonweni yezocansi ku- [ porn addicts]. Lokhu kutholwa kubhekisela ekubonweni kwethu kwamuva ukuthi amavidiyo acacile ngokocansi ahlotshaniswa nomsebenzi omkhulu kwinethiwekhi ye-neural efana neyayibona kwizifundo eziphathelene nezidakamizwa-reactivity. Isifiso esikhulu noma ukufuna kunokuba ukuthanda sasihlotshaniswa nokusebenza kule nethiwekhi ye-neural. Lezi zifundo ndawonye zinikeza ukusekelwa kwenkolelo yokugqugquzela ukukhwabanisa okugxila ekuphenduleni okungahambi kahle kwezocansi kwi-CSB.

11) Ukulutha kocansi lwe-Cyber ​​kubasebenzisi besifazane abesilisa nabesilisa abangena ocansini bezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-intanethi kungachazwa ngokucabangela ukucabangela (Laier et al., 2014) - [izifiso ezinkulu / ukukhuthaza] - Ingcaphuno:

Sihlolisise abasebenzisi be-51 besifazane ne-51 abasebenzisi be-pornography abangabasebenzisi i-intanethi (i-NIPU). Ukusebenzisa imibuzo, sihlolisise ukuqina komlutha wocansi lwe-inthanethi ngokujwayelekile, kanye nokuxhaswa ngokocansi, ukuziphatha okubi kocansi okujwayelekile, nokuqina kwempawu zengqondo. Ukwengeza, i-paradigm yokuhlola, kuhlanganise nokulinganisa okuzithobayo kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-100, kanye nezinkomba zokufuna, kwaqhutshwa. Imiphumela ibonise ukuthi i-IPU ilinganise izithombe zezithombe zobulili ezingcolile njengoba zivusa kakhulu futhi zibike ukulangazelela okukhulu ngenxa yesethulo sezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kuqhathaniswa ne-NIPU. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukulangazelela, ukulinganisa ngokocansi kwezithombe, ukuzwela ekuzijabuliseni ngokobulili, ukuziphatha okubi kobulili nokucindezeleka kwezinkinga ezingokwengqondo kubikezele ukuthambekela kokulutha kwe-inthanethi ku-IPU. Ukuba nobuhlobo, inani loxhumana nabo ngokocansi, ukwaneliseka koxhumana nabo ngokocansi, nokusetshenziswa kocansi lwama-intanethi okusebenzisana akuhloswanga nokulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi. Le miphumela ihambisana nalabo ababikiwe abesilisa abesilisa ocansini phakathi kwezifundo zangaphambilini. Okutholakele ngokuphathelene nokuvuselela ukuvuswa kocansi, izindlela zokufunda, kanye nendima yokuqaphela ukusebenza kanye nokulangazelela ekuthuthukiseni umlutha we-inthanethi ku-IPU kudingeka kudingidwe.

12) Ubufakazi Bombuso Nokucatshangelwa Kwezingqinamba Ngezizathu Ezifakazela Ukubhebhetheka Kwesicansini Ngokwe-Cyber ​​Ngomqondo Obukeka Ngokwemicabango (Laier et al., 2014) - [izifiso ezinkulu / ukukhuthaza] - Ingcaphuno:

Imvelo yesimo esivame ukubizwa ngokuthi ukulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cybersex (CA) kanye nezinqubo zayo zokuthuthukiswa. Umsebenzi wangaphambilini ubonisa ukuthi abanye abantu bangasengozini ku-CA, kuyilapho ukuqinisekiswa okuqinisekisayo nokuqaphela ukuthi kubonakala sengathi kuyindlela esemqoka yokuthuthukiswa kwe-CA. Kulesi sifundo, abesilisa abane-155 abangqingili bobulili babhala izithombe ze-100 ezingcolile futhi babonisa ukwanda kwabo kokuvusa ucansi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuthambekela kwe-CA, ukuzwela ekuzijabuliseni ngokobulili, nokusetshenziswa kabi kobulili ngokujwayelekile kwahlolwa. Imiphumela yocwaningo ibonisa ukuthi kunezici zokungcupheni ku-CA futhi inikeze ubufakazi bendima yokuthokozisa ngokocansi nokubhekana nokusebenza okungafaneleki ekuthuthukiseni i-CA.

13) Ukuvelisa, ukubeka isimo kanye nokukhathazeka ngokwemibono yocansi (Banca et al., 2015) - [ukuthanda / ukukhushulwa okukhulu / ukujwayela / ukukhishwa kwemisebenzi] - Esinye isifundo se-fMRI seCambridge University. Uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawula izidakamizwa ezingcolile zobulili ezithandwayo ezithandwayo ezenzweni zobulili kanye nezici ezifakiwe ezihambisana nezocansi ezihambisanayo. Kodwa-ke, ubuchopho bezilonda ezingcolile bujwayele ukujwayela izithombe ezithandwayo. Njengoba ukuthanda okungekho okwakungakaze kwenzeke ngaphambili, kukholelwa ukuthi ukubheja kocansi kuyadala ukufuna izinto ezintsha ekuzameni ukunqoba ukujwayela kanye nokwehla kwenhlawulo.

Ukuziphatha kocansi okuphoqelekile (CSB) kuhlotshaniswa nokuthandwa okwenziwe ubulili, uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawula izithombe, kanye nokukhetha okujwayelekile okubhekiswe emibonweni yezocansi nezomnotho uma kuqhathaniswa namavolontiya anempilo. Abantu abakwa-CSB nabo babenomkhuba omkhulu wokuzibophezela ngokuphindaphindiwe kwezithombe zocansi ngokuhambisana nezindleko zemali ngezinga lokujwayele ukuhambisana nokukhethwa okuthuthukisiwe kobuciko bezocansi. Indlela yokuziphatha ekubhekaneni nobulili i-dissociable kusukela ekuthandweni kwezenzo ezihlotshaniswayo yayihlotshaniswa nokukhathazeka kokuqala kwezithombe zocansi. Lolu cwaningo lubonisa ukuthi abantu be-CSB banezintandokazi ezingasetshenziselwa ukuthuthukiswa kocansi okungenzeka zihlanganiswe ngokujwayela okukhulu kakhulu nokuhambisana nokuthuthukiswa okwenziwe ngezifiso ukuze kubuyekezwe.

Ingcaphuno kusukela ku-press release ehlobene:

Bathola ukuthi uma izidakamizwa zobulili zibuka isithombe esifanayo socansi ngokuphindaphindiwe, uma kuqhathaniswa namavolontiya anempilo abhekana nokwehla okukhulu komsebenzi esifundeni sobuchopho owaziwa ngokuthi i-rorsal anterior cingulate cortex, eyaziwa ukuthi ihileleke ekulindeni imivuzo nokuphendula izenzakalo ezintsha. Lokhu kuhambisana 'nokujwayela', lapho umlutha uthola khona ukuvuselela okufanayo okuncane kakhulu - isibonelo, isiphuzo sekhofi singathola i-caffeine 'buzz' esitokisini sawo sokuqala, kodwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi baphuza kakhulu ikhofi, amancane buzz iba.

Lokhu kusebenza okufanayo kwendabuko kwenzeka emadodeni enempilo aboniswa ngokuphindaphindiwe ividiyo efanayo ye-porn. Kodwa uma bebuka ividiyo entsha, izinga lesithakazelo nokuvusa libuyela ezingeni langempela. Lokhu kusho ukuthi, ukuvimbela ukujwayela, umlutha wezocansi uzodinga ukufundwa njalo kwezithombe ezintsha. Ngamanye amazwi, ukujwayela kungase kuqhubekele ukucinga izithombe zeveli.

"Izinto esizifunayo zisebenza ngokukhethekile emlandweni wezithombe ezingcolile zobulili," kusho uDkt. Voon. "Akucaci ukuthi yini ebangela ukubheja ngokocansi endaweni yokuqala futhi kungenzeka ukuthi abanye abantu bajwayele ukubheja ngokweqile kunabanye, kodwa ukubonakala okungapheli kwezithombe zocansi ezitholakala kuyi-intanethi kusiza ukondla umlutha wabo, okwenze kube ngaphezulu futhi kunzima kakhulu ukubaleka. "

14) Izindinganiso ze-Neural zesifiso socansi kubantu ngabanye abanezinkinga zokuziphatha ezingcolile (i-Hypersexual behavior)Seok & Sohn, 2015) - [ukucubungula okukhulu / ukugqugquzela kanye nezifunda ezihamba phambili ezingasebenzi] - Lolu cwaningo lwesiKorea lwe-fMRI luchaza ezinye izifundo zobuchopho kubasebenzisi be-porn. Njengesikole saseCambridge University ithole amaphethini okusebenza okucutshungulwa kobuchopho kubantu abahlukunyezwa ngokobulili, okwakuboniswa ngamaphethini omlutha wezidakamizwa. Ngokuvumelana nezifundo eziningana zaseJalimane zathola ukuguqulwa kwe-correx ye-prefrontal ehambisana nezinguquko ezitholakala ezilutha izidakamizwa. Yini okusha ukuthi okutholakele kufanelana namaphethini okusebenza okusetshenziselwa i-prefrontal cortex egcinwe kumilutha yezidakamizwa: Ukuqaphela okukhulu-ukusebenzisana kwezithombe zobulili okwamanje kungavimbela izimpendulo kwezinye izinto ezivame ukuzenza. Ingcaphuno:

Ukutadisha kwethu kuhloswe ukuphenya ama-neural correlates wesifiso socansi nokufanekisana kwemifanekiso ehambisana nemicimbi ehlobene nemicimbi (fMRI) ephathelene nomcimbi. Abantu abangamashumi amabili nantathu abane-PHB kanye ne-22 izilawuli ezinempilo ezifanelwe ubudala ngenkathi bebheka ngokungathí sina imibono yezocansi nokungaxhunyiwe. Izinga lezifundo zezocansi zihlolwe ekuphenduleni isisombululo ngasinye socansi. Ngokuphathelene nezilawuli, abantu abane-PHB bahlangabezana nesifiso socansi esivamile futhi esithuthukisiwe ngenkathi behlaselwa kwisicoco socansi. Ukusebenza okukhulu kwatholakala ku-nucleus ye-caudate, i-lobe ephansi, i-torsmus, ne-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex eqenjini le-PHB kuneqembu elilawulayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amaphethini e-hemodynamic ezindaweni eziqanjwe kuzo ahluke phakathi kwamaqembu. Ngokuhambisana nokufundwa kocwaningo lwe-brain imaging of substance and behavior addiction, abantu abanezici zokuziphatha ze-PHB kanye nesifiso esithuthukisiwe kuboniswe ukusebenza okwenziwe ngokuguquguqukayo ezindaweni eziphambili ze-correx nasezindaweni ezingaphansi kwe-subcortical

15) Ukuguquguquka kwezinto ezitholakala esikhathini esizayo ngezithombe zocansi ezitholakala kubasebenzisi bezinkinga kanye nezinkambiso ezingavumelani nalokho "ukuphuza utshwala"Prause et al., 2015) - [habituation] - Isifundo sesibili se-EEG kusuka Ithimba likaNicole Prause. Lolu cwaningo luqhathanisa nezihloko ze-2013 ezivela Steele et al., 2013 kuya eqenjini lokulawula langempela (okwamanje libhekene nezinkinga ezifanayo zendlela yokwenza okukhulunywe ngayo ngenhla). Imiphumela: Ukuqhathaniswa nezilawuli "abantu ababhekana nezinkinga ezilawula ukubukwa kwabo kwezingcolile" babe nezimpendulo eziphansi zobuchopho ekuvezeni okwesikhashana kwezithombe ze-porno ye-vanilla. I umlobi ohola uthi le miphumela "i-debunk umlutha wezocansi." Yimuphi usosayensi osemthethweni ongasho ukuthi isifundo sabo esisodwa esisodwa senzeke insimu yokutadisha kahle?

Eqinisweni, okutholakele Prause et al. I-2015 ihambisane ngokuphelele Kühn & Gallinat (2014), okuthole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-porn ngaphezulu okuhlobene nokusebenza komcibisholo okungapheli ekuphenduleni izithombe ze-porn ye-vanilla. Prause et al. okutholakele nakho kuhambelana Banca et al. 2015 okuyi- #13 kulolu hlu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, esinye isifundo se-EEG bathole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kobulili kwabesifazane okuhambisana nokusebenza kakhudlwana ebuchosheni. Ukufunda okungezansi kwe-EEG kusho ukuthi izifundo azizinaki izithombe. Ngokumane nje, abasebenzisi bezithombe zobulili bezintandokazi abavamile babenomqondo wokuthi babe nesimo sezintambo ze-vanilla porn. Babenesithukuthezi (bajwayele noma benesisindo). Bona lokhu I-YBOP enkulu ihlaziya. Amaphepha ayisikhombisa abuyekezwe ngontanga avumelana ukuthi lolu cwaningo lwathola empeleni ukuxoshwa / ukujwayele kubasebenzisi be-porn abavamile (okuhambisana nokulutha): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.

16) I-HPA I-Axis Dysregulation Emadodeni Nge-Disorder Sex Disorder (I-Chatzittofis, 2015) - [impendulo yokucindezeleka engasebenzi] - Ukutadisha ne-67 abadakamizwa besilisa nobulili kanye nokulawula kwe-39 ubudala. I-Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis ngumdlali oyinhloko ekuphenduleni kwethu kokucindezeleka. Izidakamizwa guqula izijikelezo zokucindezeleka kwengqondo okuholela e-axis ehlulekayo ye-HPA. Lolu cwaningo olumayelana nezidakamizwa zocansi (abesilisa ocansini) lathola izimpendulo zokucindezeleka eziguquguqukayo ezibonisa ukutholakala kwezidakamizwa ezidakamizwa. Izingcaphuno ezivela ekukhululweni kwezindaba:

Ucwaningo luhilela amadoda e-67 ngengxabano e-hypersexual kanye nokulawulwa okuhambisana kahle kwe-39. Ababambiqhaza baxilongwa ngokucophelela ngenxa yokuphazamiseka kwe-hypersexual nanoma yikuphi ukungaboni kahle ngokucindezeleka noma ukuhlukunyezwa kwengane. Abacwaningi babanikeze umthamo ophansi we-dexamethasone kusihlwa ngaphambi kokuhlolwa ukuvimbela ukucindezeleka kwabo ngokomzimba, bese ekuseni balinganisa amazinga ama-hormone okucindezeleka i-cortisol ne-ACTH. Bathola ukuthi iziguli ezine-hypersexual disorder zazinamazinga aphezulu ama-hormone anjalo kunama-controls enempilo, umehluko owasala ngisho nangemva kokulawula ukucindezeleka okubambisana nokuhlukunyezwa kwengane.

U-Professor Jokinen uthi: "Umthetho wokucindezeleka u-Aberrant uye waqaphela ngaphambili iziguli ezicindezelekile nezokuzibulala. "Eminyakeni yamuva, kugxile ekubhekiseni ukuthi ukuhlukunyezwa kwengane kungabangela ukuhlukunyezwa kwezinhlelo zokucindezeleka komzimba ngezinye izindlela okuthiwa yi-epigenetic, ngamanye amazwi ukuthi izindawo zabo ezingokwengqondo zingathonya kanjani izakhi zofuzo ezilawula lezi zinhlelo." Ngokusho abacwaningi, imiphumela iphakamisa ukuthi uhlelo olufanayo lwe-neurobiological olubandakanyeka kwenye uhlobo lokuhlukunyezwa lungasebenza kubantu abane-hypersexual disorder.

17) Ukulawulwa kwe-Prefrontal nokulutha kwe-intanethi: imodeli yemfundiso nokubukeza okutholakala kwe-neuropsychological and neuroimaging (I-Brand et al., 2015)- [izifunda eziphambene nomsebenzi / izinsizakusebenza ezihluphekayo] - Ingcaphuno:

Ngokuvumelana nalokhu, imiphumela evela ekusebenziseni ubuciko obusebenzayo kanye nezinye izifundo ze-neuropsychological zibonisa ukuthi ukukhwabanisa, ukuthanda, nokwenza izinqumo kuyizinto ezibalulekile zokuqonda umlutha we-intanethi. Okutholakele ekunciphiseni ukulawula okulawulayo kuyahambisana nezinye izidakamizwa zokuziphatha, ezifana nokugembula kwezemvelo. Baphinde bagcizelele ukuhlukaniswa kwalesi simo njengesiyaluyalu, ngoba kukhona okunye okufana nokuthola okuxhomeke ekudleni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imiphumela yocwaningo lwamanje lifaniswa nokuthola okuvela ekucwaningweni okuxhomekeke kumuntu futhi kugcizelele ama-analogi phakathi kokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cyber kanye nokulutha kwezidakamizwa noma ezinye izidakamizwa zokuziphatha.

18) Izihlobo ezingenangqondo ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi: Ukulungiswa kwe-Test Effective Association kanye nezithombe zobulili ezingcolile (Snagkowski et al., 2015) - [ukulangazelela okukhulu / ukuzwela] - Ingcaphuno:

Ucwaningo lwamuva lubonisa ukufana okuphakathi kokulutha kwe-inthanethi kwezokuxilonga ngocansi kanye nokuxhomeka kwezidakamizwa futhi ukuphikisana nokubeka umlutha wokuxilonga ngocansi e-inthanethi njengomlutha wokuziphatha. Ngokuxhomekeka kokuzimele, izinhlangano eziqhamukayo ziyaziwa ukuthi zidlala indima ebalulekile, futhi izinhlangano ezinjalo ezingakaze zifundwe ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi, kuze kube manje. Kulolu cwaningo lokuhlola, abahlanganyeli be-128 abesilisa nabesifazane abesilisa nabesifazane abaqedile ukugcwalisa i-Implicit Association Test (i-IAT; iGreenwald, McGhee, no-Schwartz, i-1998) eshintshwe ngezithombe zobulili ezingcolile. Ngokuqhubekayo, ukuziphatha okubi ngokocansi, ukuzwela ekukhulekeleni ngokobulili, ukuthambekela ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi, nokuzifiso ngokuzithoba ngenxa yokubuka izithombe zobulili ezingcolile kwahlolwa. Imiphumela ibonisa ubuhlobo obuhle phakathi kobudlelwane obuseduze bezithombe zobulili ezingcolile nemimoya emihle kanye nethambekelo ekubhekaneni nokubheja ngocansi lwe-inthanethi, ukuziphatha okubi kobulili, ukuzwela ekuthandweni kobulili kanye nokuzikhandla. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuhlaziywa okuhlolisisiwe kwemboniso kwembula ukuthi abantu ababika ukuzikhandla okukhulu kakhulu futhi babonisa ubudlelwane obuhle bezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ngemisindo emihle, ikakhulukazi bahlose ukubhebhetheka ngokocansi. Okutholakele kuphakamisa indima engaba khona yezinhlangano ezinobungozi ezihambisana nezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ekuthuthukiseni nasekugcinweni kokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cybersex. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imiphumela yocwaningo lwamanje lifaniswa nokuthola okuvela ekucwaningweni okuxhomekeke kumuntu futhi kugcizelele ama-analogi phakathi kokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cyber kanye nokulutha kwezidakamizwa noma ezinye izidakamizwa zokuziphatha.

19) Izimpawu zokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-inthanethi zingaxhunyaniswa kokubili okusondelayo nokugwema isenzo sezithombe zobulili ezingcolile: imiphumela esampula ye-analog yabasebenzisi abasebenzisa i-cyber njalo (Snagkowski, et al., 2015) - [ukulangazelela okukhulu / ukuzwela] - Ingcaphuno:

Ezinye izindlela zibhekisela ekufananeni nokuxhomekeka kwezidakamizwa okuyizinto zokuzama ukugwema / ukugwema izindlela ezibalulekile. Abacwaningi abaningana baye baphikisa ukuthi ngaphakathi kwesinqumo esithinta izidakamizwa, abantu bangase bakhombise ukuthambekela kokuya noma ukugwema isenzo esithinta izidakamizwa. Esifundweni samanje abakwa-123 abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa nabesifazane baqedile indlela yokuVimbela-Ukugwema (AAT; I-Rinck no-Becker, i-2007) iguquliwe ngezithombe zobulili ezingcolile. Ngesikhathi ababambiqhaza be-AAT bekufanele baqhubekele inhlamba yezithombe zobulili ezingcolile noma badonsele kubo ngenjabulo. Ukuzwela ukukhathazeka ngokocansi, ukuziphatha okubi ngokobulili, nokuthambekela ekubhekaneni nokubheja ngocansi kwe-inthanethi kuhlolwe ngemibuzo.

Imiphumela yabonisa ukuthi abantu abanokuthambekela ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi bavame ukungena noma ukugwema inhlamba yezithombe zocansi. Ukwengeza, ukuhlaziya okulinganisiwe kokuhlaziya kwembulwe ukuthi abantu abanezifiso eziphakeme zocansi kanye nokuziphatha okubi kobulili ababonisa ukuthambekela okuphezulu / ukugwema, babike izimpawu eziphakeme zokulutha kwe-inthanethi ngocansi. I-Analogous to dependence properties, imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi kokubili ukuthambekela kokuzigwema nokugwema kungadlala indima ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusebenzisana nokuzwela ekuzijabuliseni ngokobulili nokuziphatha okubi kobulili kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekukhulekeleni kwezikhalazo ezizithobayo ekuphileni kwansuku zonke ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwe-inthanethi nge-inthanethi. Okutholakele kuhlinzeka ubufakazi obuningi bokuthi kufana nokufana kokulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi nokuxhomeka kwemithwalo. Ukufana okunjalo kungahle kubuyele ekuqhutshweni kwe-neural efanayo kwe-cybersex- kanye nezici ezihlobene nezidakamizwa.

20) Ukunamathela ezintweni ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile? Ukusebenzisa ngokweqile noma ukunganakwa kwezimo zocansi zocansi esimweni esinabantu abaningi kuhlobene nezimpawu zokulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi (Schiebener et al., 2015) - [ukuthanda / ukukhushulwa okukhulu nokulawulwa komphathi ompofu] - Ingcaphuno:

Abanye abantu basebenzisa okuqukethwe koxhumene ne-inthanethi, okufana nezindaba zobulili ezingcolile, ngendlela yokulutha, okuholela emiphumeleni emibi kakhulu empilweni yangasese noma emsebenzini. Enye indlela eholela emiphumeleni engalungile inganciphisa ukulawula okuphezulu kokuqondisa nokuziphatha okungase kudingekile ukuqaphela ukushintshwa komgomo phakathi kokusebenzisa i-inthanethi nokunye imisebenzi kanye nezibopho zokuphila. Ukuze sibhekane nalesi sici, siphenya abahlanganyeli besilisa be-104 abanesiphakamiso esiphezulu se-paradigm ngamasethi amabili: Isethi esisodwa sasinezithombe zabantu, enye isethi yayinezithombe zobulili ezingcolile. Kokubili ubeka izithombe kufanele zihlukaniswe ngokwezinqubo ezithile. Umgomo ocacile kwakuwukuba usebenze kuwo wonke umsebenzi wokuhlukanisa ngezilinganiso ezilinganayo, ngokushintsha phakathi kwamasethingi nemisebenzi yokuhlelwa ngendlela elinganiselayo.

Sithole ukuthi ukusebenza okulinganiselwe okuncane kule paradigm eningi kakhulu kuhlotshaniswa nokuthambekela okuphezulu ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi. Abantu abanalo mkhuba ngokuvamile basebenzisa ngokweqile noma banganaki ukusebenzela izithombe ezingcolile. Imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi ukulawulwa kokulawula okunciphisisiwe ekusebenzeni kwe-multitasking, lapho kubhekene nezinto eziphathekayo zobulili ezingcolile, kungaholela ekuziphatheni okungasebenzi kahle kanye nemiphumela emibi ephumela ekulweni kwe-inthanethi nge-cyber. Kodwa-ke, abantu abanokuthambekela ekubhebhethekiseni i-inthanethi kubonakala sengathi banesifiso sokugwema noma ukubhekana nalokhu okushiwo yizocansi, njengoba kuboniswe ezinhlobonhlobo zokugqugquzela umlutha.

21) Ukuhweba Kamuva Imivuzo Yenjabulo Yamanje: Izithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Ukuchitha Nokunciphisa Ukuthengiswa (Negash et al., 2015) - [ukuphatha okuphambene kakhulu: ukuhlolwa kwe-causation] - Okucaphuno:

Ukufunda i-1: Abahlanganyeli baqedile umbuzo wokusebenzisa izithombe zobulili ezingcolile kanye nomsebenzi wokubambezeleka wokuphumula ngesikhathi se-Time 1 futhi futhi emva kwamasonto amane. Abahlanganyeli ababika izithombe zobulili ezingcolile zokuqala basebenzise izinga lokukhipha ukulibaziseka okuphezulu ku-Time 2, ukulawula ukukhipha ukulibala kokuqala. Ukufunda i-2: Abahlanganyeli ababalekela ezithombeni zobulili ezingcolile basebenzise ukuphumula okunciphisa ukubambezeleka kunabalingani abayeke ukudla okuthandayo.

Izithombe zobulili ezingcolile zakwa-intanethi ngumvuzo wobulili owenza ukulibaziseka ukuphumula ngokwehlukile kunezinye izinzuzo zemvelo, ngisho nalapho ukusetshenziswa kungacindezeli noma kumlutha. Lolu cwaningo lwenza umnikelo obalulekile, kubonisa ukuthi umphumela uhamba ngaphezu kokuvusa okwesikhashana.

Ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kunganikeza ukuzithokozisa okusheshayo ngokocansi kodwa kungaba nemiphumela ehamba phambili futhi ithinte ezinye izizinda zokuphila komuntu, ikakhulukazi ubudlelwane.

Ukutholwa kusikisela ukuthi izithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-Inthanethi ngumvuzo wobulili obangela ukuphuza ukuphumula ngokwehlukile kunezinye izinzuzo zemvelo. Ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukuphatha izithombe zobulili ezingcolile njengesimo esiyingqayizivele ekufundiseni, ukuzikhandla, nokufunda izidakamizwa nokusebenzisa lokhu ngokuqondene nokwelashwa komuntu ngamunye kanye nokwabelana.

22) Ukuxhaswa ngokocansi nokubhekana nokungasebenzi ngokuqondile Ukunquma ukubhebhetheka ngokobulili ngocansi phakathi kwabantu abesilisa nabesilisa ocansini (Laier et al., 2015) - [ukulangazelela okukhulu / ukuzwela] - Ingcaphuno:

Ukutholakala kwakamuva kuboniswe ubudlelwane obuphakathi kwe-CyberSex Addiction (CA) obuqinile kanye nezinkomba zokuzijabulisa ngokobulili, nokuthi ukubhekana nokuziphatha ngokocansi kuhlobanisa ubuhlobo phakathi kokuzijabulisa ngokocansi kanye nezimpawu ze-CA. Inhloso yalolu cwaningo kwakuwukuhlola lokhu kuxoxisana ngesampula samadoda angqingili. Imibuzo ihlolwe izimpawu ze-CA, ukuzwela ekuzijabuliseni ngokobulili, izithombe zobulili ezingcolile zisebenzisa isisusa, ukuziphatha okubi kobulili, izimpawu zengqondo, nokuziphatha kocansi empilweni yangempela kanye ne-intanethi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, abahlanganyeli babheka ama-pornography futhi babonisa ukuvuka kwabo ngokocansi ngaphambi nangemva kwevidiyo. Imiphumela yabonisana ngokuqinile phakathi kwezimpawu ze-CA nezinkomba zokuvusa ngocansi nokuzijabulisa ngokobulili, ukubhekana nokuziphatha ngokobulili, nezimpawu zengqondo. I-CA ayihlotshaniswa nokuziphatha okungaxhunyiwe ku-intanethi futhi isikhathi sokusebenzisa i-intanethi ngesonto lonke. Ukubhekana nokuziphatha ngokocansi kunciphisa kancane ubuhlobo phakathi kokuzijabulisa ngokocansi ne-CA. Imiphumela yalinganiswa nalabo ababikwe abesilisa nabesilisa abesilisa nabesifazane besifazane ekufundeni kwangaphambilini futhi baxoxwa ngokulandelana kwemibono ye-CA, efakazela indima yokuqiniswa okuhle nokubi ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwe-inthanethi.

23) Indima Ye-Neuroinflammation ku-Pathophysiology Ye-Hypersexual Disorder (Jokinen et al., 2016) - Ukuphendula ukucindezeleka okungasebenzi kanye nokuvuvukala kwegazi - Lesi sifundo sabike amazinga aphezulu ajikeleza i-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) kumlutha wezocansi uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawula okunempilo. Amazinga aphakanyisiwe we-TNF (uphawu lokuvuvukala) nawo atholakale kubantu abahlukumeza izidakamizwa nezidakamizwa ezilutha izidakamizwa (utshwala, heroin, meth). Kwakukhona ukuxhumana okuqinile phakathi kwamazinga we-TNF nezilinganiso zokulinganisa ukulinganisa ubuhlobo bobulili obufanayo.

24) Ukuziphatha Ngokweqile Ngokwecansi: I-Prefrontal NoLimbic Volume kanye Nokusebenzisana (Schmidt et al., 2016) - [i-circuit preferenceal circuits and sensitization] - Lesi sifundo se-FMRI. Uma kuqhathaniswa nezilawuli ezinempilo CSB (izidakamizwa ezingcolile) zenyukile kwesokunxele i-amygdala ivolumu futhi zanciphisa ukuxhumana okusebenza phakathi kwe-amygdala ne-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC. Ukuxhunyaniswa kokusebenza okunciphise phakathi kwe-amygdala ne-prefrontal cortex ehambisana nokulutha kwezidakamizwa. Kucatshangwa ukuthi ukuxhumeka okuncane kunciphisa ukulawula kwe-prefrontal cortex phezu komfutho womsebenzisi wokuhlanganyela ekuziphatheni komlutha. Lolu cwaningo lubonisa ukuthi utshwala obudakamizwa lungabangela ukungabi nalutho olubi futhi ngaleyo ndlela linciphise umthamo we-amygdala kumilutha yezidakamizwa. I-amygdala ihlale isebenza ngesikhathi sokubuka izithombe ze-porn, ikakhulukazi lapho kutholakala okokuqala ngokocansi. Mhlawumbe ubuhle bobulili obuqhubekayo nokucwaninga nokufuna kuholela emthonjeni oyingqayizivele ku-amygdala kubasebenzisi be-porn abathintekayo. Ngaphandle kwalokho, iminyaka yokulutha kabi kocansi kanye nemiphumela emibi kakhulu iyinkinga kakhulu - futhi cUkucindezeleka okungokweqile komphakathi kuhlobene nokukhula kwe-amygdala volume. Study #16 ngenhla wathola ukuthi "izilonda zocansi" zinesimiso sokucindezeleka ngokweqile. Kungenzeka yini ukucindezeleka okungapheli okuhlobene nokulutha kobulili / ngokocansi, kanye nezici ezenza ubulili obuhlukile, kuholele kumthamo omkhulu wama-amygdala? Ingcaphuno:

Iziphumo zethu zamanje ziqokomisa imiqulu ephakeme esifundeni esithintekayo ekubambeni kokugqugquzela nokuxhumeka okuphansi kwesimo sokuphumula kombuso we-prefrontal top-down amanethiwekhi wokulawula okulawulayo. Ukuphazanyiswa kwamanethiwekhi okunjalo kungachaza izindlela zokuziphatha ezingenasiphelo kumvuzo ongakusiza wemvelo noma ukuvuselelwa okuthuthukisiwe kuya emibhalweni eyinhloko yokukhuthaza. Nakuba ukutholakala kwethu kokuziphendukela kwemvelo kuqhathanisa nalabo abase-SUD, lezi zithole zingabonisa ukungafani njengokusebenza kwemiphumela ye-neurotoxic yokutholakala kwezidakamizwa ezingapheli. Ubufakazi obusukayo bubonisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi kuncike ekutheni kube khona inqubo yokulutha izidakamizwa ngokusekela ikakhulukazi ukugqugquzela izintshisekelo zokugqugquzela. Siye sabonisa ukuthi umsebenzi kule nethiwekhi ye-salience yenziwa ngcono emva kokuchazwa kumazwi ahloniphekile noma okukhethwa ngawo ngokocansi [Brand et al., 2016; USeok noSohn, 2015; Voon et al., 2014] kanye nokunyanyiswa okuthuthukisiwe [uMechelmans et al., 2014] futhi ufisa okucacile ekuthandweni kocansi kodwa hhayi ngesifiso sobulili esijwayelekile [Brand et al., 2016; Voon et al., 2014]. Ukunakwa okuthuthukisiwe ekukhulumeni kobulili kuhloswe ngokuhlotshaniswa nokuthandwa kwamagama okuziphatha ngokobulili kanjalo kuqinisekisa ubuhlobo phakathi kokubekwa kwesimo socansi nokukhathazeka [Banca et al., 2016]. Lokhu kutholakala komsebenzi othuthukisiwe ohlobene neziqephu zobulili kuhluke kunomphumela (noma isisusa esingenakunqunywa) lapho ukuhlala okuthuthukisiwe, okungenzeka kuhambisana nomqondo wokubekezela, kwandisa okuthandwayo kwenzalo yezocansi (no Ban et al., 2016]. Ngokubonke lokhu okutholakele kusiza ekuqedeni i-neurobiology engezansi ye-CSB eholele ekuqondeni okukhulu kwesifo kanye nokuhlonza izimpawu zokwelapha ezingenzeka.

25) Umsebenzi we-Ventral Striatum Uma Ukubuka Izithombe Ezizikhethela Zobulili Ezingxenyeni Kuhlotshaniswa Nezibonakaliso Zomlutha Wezithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Ze-Inthanethi (I-Brand et al., 2016) - [ukucubungula okukhulu / ukuvuselela] - Isifundo se-fMRI saseJalimane. Ukuthola i- #1: Umsebenzi wesikhungo somvuzo (i-ventral striatum) yayiphezulu kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ezikhethiwe. Ukuthola #2: I-Ventral striatum reactivity ehlobene ne-internet yokulutha ubulili. Zombili iziphumo zikhombisa ukuzwela futhi zihambelane ne imodeli yokulutha umlutha. Abalobi basho ukuthi "I-Neural isisekelo sokulutha kobulili ezingcolile kuyi-Internet kufaniswa nezinye izidakamizwa." Ingcaphuno:

Uhlobo olulodwa lomlutha we-intanethi lusetshenziswa ngokweqile ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile, okubhekwa nangokuthi ukubheja kocansi noma i-intanethi ye-Internet. Ucwaningo lwe-Neuroimaging lwathola umsebenzi we-ventral striatum lapho ababambiqhaza bebukele isenzo esicacile sobulili uma kuqhathaniswa nezinto ezingacacile zocansi / ezithandwayo. Manje sithemba ukuthi i-ventral striatum kufanele iphendule izithombe ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile eziqhathaniswa nezithombe ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile futhi ukuthi umsebenzi we-ventral striatum kulokhu kuqhathaniswa kufanele uhlobaniswe nezibonakaliso ezizithobayo zokulutha kobulili ezingcolile kuyi-intanethi. Sifunde abathintekayo abesilisa abane-19 abesilisa abanesithombe sezithombe ezihlanganisa izinto eziphathekayo ezikhethwayo nezingazikhetheli.

Izithombe ezisuka kwisigaba esikhethiwe zilinganisiwe njengokuvusa okunye, okungajabulisi kahle, futhi okuseduze nakakhulu. Impendulo ye-Ventral striatum yayinamandla esimweni esithandwayo kuqhathaniswa nezithombe ezingakhethi. Umsebenzi we-Ventral striatum kule mpikiswano wawuhlotshaniswa nezimpawu ezizimele ze-Inthanethi zobulili ezingcolile zobulili. Ukuqina kwesifo esibucayi kwakuyiyona kuphela eyabonakalayo ekuhlaziyeni kokunciphisa ngokuphendula okuzenzekelayo njengezimo ezixhomeke ekuxhaseni nasezibonisweni ezibonakalayo zokulahla izithombe zobulili ezingcolile zobulili, ukuzijabulisa ngokobulili, ukuziphatha okuphathelene nokucansi, ukucindezeleka, ukuzwela komuntu siqu, nokuziphatha kocansi ezinsukwini zokugcina njengezibikezelo . Imiphumela isekela indima ye-ventral striatum ekucubunguleni umvuzo wokulindela nokwaneliseka okuxhunywe ekuphathweni kwezinto ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile. Izindlela zokulindela ukulindela ekutheni i-ventral striatum ingabangela incazelo ye-neural yokuthi kungani abantu abanezintandokazi ezithile nezengqondo zobulili bengengozi yokulahlekelwa ukulawula kwabo ukusetshenziswa kwama-pornography e-intanethi.

26) Isimo esithintekayo se-Appetitive ne-Neural Ukuxhumana ezifundweni ezinezinkinga zokuziphatha ngokobulili (Compulsive Behavior behavior)Klucken et al., 2016) - [ukucubungula okukhulu / ukugqugquzela kanye nezifunda zokungasebenzi ezingasebenzi) - Lesi sifundo se-fMRI saseJalimane sichaza iziphumo ezimbili ezibalulekile ezivela I-Voon et al., I-2014 futhi Kuhn & Gallinat 2014. Ukuthola Okuyinhloko: I-correlates ye-neural ye-conditioning yesibindi nokuhlanganiswa kwe-neural kwashintshwa eqenjini le-CSB. Ngokusho kwabacwaningi, ukuguqulwa kokuqala - ukuvuselelwa kwe-amygdala ephakanyisiwe - kungase kubonise isimo esimisiwe (i-"wiring" enkulu "emaceleni angaphathi hlangothi okubikezela izithombe ezingcolile). Ukushintshwa kwesibili - kunciphise ukuxhumana phakathi kwe-ventral striatum kanye ne-prefrontal cortex - kungaba uphawu lokungakwazi ukulawula amandla. Abacwaningi bathi, "Lezi [ukuguqulwa] zihambisana nezinye izicwaningo zokuphenya nge-neural correlates yezidakamizwa zokulutha umlutha kanye nokuhluleka kokulawula umfutho." Ukutholakala kokusebenza okukhulu kwe-amygdalar kuya emaceleni (ukuzwela) futhi wehlisa uxhumano phakathi kwesikhungo somvuzo kanye ne-prefrontal cortex (ubuzenzisi) yizinguquko ezimbili zobuchopho obubonakalayo ekudakiseni izidakamizwa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-3 yabasebenzisi be-porn-compulsive i-20 bahlushwa "yi-orgasmic-erection disorder." Ingcaphuno:

Ngokuvamile, ukugcizelela okwenziwe ukwanda komsebenzi we-amygdala kanye nokunciphisa okwenziwe nge-ventral-PFC yokuxhuma kuvumela ukuthi ucabangele nge-etiology nokuphathwa kwe-CSB. Izihloko ze-CSB zibonakala zijwayele ukuhlela ubudlelwane phakathi kwamacebo angathathi hlangothi kanye nezindlela zokuziphatha eziphathelene nobulili. Ngakho-ke, lezi zihloko cishe zingase zihlangane nezici ezenza ukuziphatha okusondelayo. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi lokhu kuholela ku-CSB noma kungumphumela we-CSB kumele uphendulwe ngokucwaninga kusasa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinqubo zokulawulwa kwezimo eziphuthemayo, ezibonakala ekunciphiseni ukuqhutshwa kwe-prefrontal ye-ventral, zingaphinde zisekele ukugcinwa kokuziphatha okunenkinga.

27) Ukuphoqeleka Kusetshenziselwa Ukusebenzisa Ngokungafanele Ukusetshenziswa Kwemithi Yezidakamizwa Nezingekho Emthethweni (Banca et al., 2016) - [ukucubungula okukhulu / ukuvuselela, izimpendulo ezenziwe ngcono] - Ucwaningo lwe-Cambridge University lwe-fMRI luqhathanisa izici zokucindezela kwezidakamizwa, izidakamizwa, izidakamizwa zegeyimu yevidiyo kanye nezidakamizwa ze-porn (CSB). Okucaphuno:

Ngokungafani nezinye izinkinga, i-CSB uma kuqhathaniswa ne-HV ibonise ukuthengwa okusheshayo emiphumeleni yokuvuza kanye nokukhuthazela okukhulu esimweni somvuzo kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kwenzekani. Izihloko ze-CSB azibonanga noma yikuphi ukukhubazeka okuqondile ekusetshenzisweni kokuguquguquka noma kokuguqula. Lokhu okutholakele kuguqulwa ngezinzuzo zethu zangaphambilini zokuzikhethela okuthuthukisiwe okwenziwe ngemiphumela yocansi noma yemali, jikelele ekhombisa ukuzwela okuthuthukisiwe ukuvuza (I-Banca et al., 2016). Ucwaningo oluqhubekayo olusebenzisa imivuzo ebonakalayo luboniswa.

28) Ukufuna Ukuziqhenya Ngokuziqhenya Ngokwezithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Nokuzihlanganisa Ukubikezela Ukuthambekela Ngokweqile Kwesimo Sezinxushunxushu Ngesimo Sokusetshenziswa Kwesicansi Sezinsizakalo ZaseCyber ​​(Snagkowski et al., 2016) - [ukucubungula okukhulu / ukuvuselela, izimpendulo ezithuthukisiwe] - Lolu cwaningo oluyingqayizivele lubeke izihloko ezinhlobonhlobo zangaphambili ezingathathi hlangothi, ezabikezela ukubukeka kwesithombe socansi. Okucaphuno:

Akukho ukuvumelana mayelana nenqubo yokuxilongwa yokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cyber. Ezinye zilandela ukulinganisa okufana nokuxhomeka kwezidakamizwa, lapho ukufunda okuhlanganisayo kuyindlela ebalulekile. Kulolu cwaningo, amadoda e-86 angqingili abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa agcwalise i-Standard Pavlovian kuya ku-Instrumental Transfer Task eguquliwe ngezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ukuze uphenye ukufunda okuhlanganyelwe ekuluthweni kwe-inthanethi nge-cyber. Ukwengeza, ukufuna ukuzithoba ngenxa yokubuka izithombe zobulili ezingcolile kanye nokuthambekela ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi kuhlolwe. Imiphumela yabonisa umphumela wokufisa ukuzithoba ekuthambekeni kokukhwabanisa ngocansi lwe-inthanethi, okuhlolwe ukufundiswa kokuhlanganyela. Ngokuvamile, lokhu okutholakele kubhekisela endimeni ebalulekile yokufunda okuhlanganyelwe ekuthuthukiseni ukubheja kocansi lwe-inthanethi, ngenkathi inikeza ubufakazi obuningi bokuthi kufana nokulingana kwezidakamizwa nokuxilonga kwe-inthanethi. Ngamafuphi, imiphumela yocwaningo lwamanje lisikisela ukuthi ukufunda okubambisana kungadlala indima ebalulekile ngokuthuthukiswa kokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cybersex. Okutholakele kwethu kunikeza ubufakazi obengeziwe bokufana okukhona phakathi kokulutha kwe-inthanethi ngoxhumo lwe-inthanethi kanye nokuxhomeka kwemithwalo ngoba izimpikiswano zokufuna ukuzithoba kanye nokufunda okuhlangene kubonisiwe.

29) Imodi iyashintsha ngemva kokubukela izithombe zobulili ezingcolile kuyi-Internet zixhunyaniswa nezimpawu ze-Inthanethi-izithombe zobulili ezingcolile-ukubhekwa kwezifo (Laier & Brand,2016) - [ukuthanda / ukukhushulwa okukhulu, ukungathandi kancane] - Amakhombandlela:

Imiphumela eyinhloko yocwaningo yilokho ukuthambekela ekubhekaneni ne-Internet Pornography Disorder (i-IPD) kuhlotshaniswa kabi nokuzizwa kahle, ukuphaphama, nokuzola kanye nokuzizwa kahle ngokucindezeleka okubonakalayo ekuphileni kwansuku zonke kanye nesisusa sokusebenzisa izithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-intanethi ngokufuna ukukhathazeka nokugwema ngokomzwelo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuthambekela kohlelo lwe-IPD kwakungathintene kabi nomzwelo ngaphambi nangemva kokubuka izithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-intanethi kanye nokwanda okwenziwe okuhle nokuthula. Ubuhlobo phakathi kokuthambekela kwe-IPD kanye nenjabulo yokufuna ngenxa ye-intanethi-ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kwahlungwa ngokuhlolwa kokugculiseka kwe-orgasm okuhlangenwe nakho. Ngokuvamile, imiphumela yocwaningo iyavumelana ne-hypothesis ukuthi i-IPD ixhunyaniswe nesisusa sokuthola ukuzithokozisa ngokocansi nokugwema noma ukubhekana nemizwelo ephazamisayo kanye nokucabanga ukuthi isimo sengqondo sishintsha emva kokusetshenziswa kocansi okuxhumene ne-IPD (Cooper et al., 1999 futhi I-Laier neBrith, i-2014).

30) Ukuziphatha ngokobulili kubantu abasha: Izinhlangano kuzo zonke iziguquko zomtholampilo, zokuziphatha, kanye neurocognitive (2016) - [ukusebenza okusebenzayo okunamandla] - Abantu abanezinkinga zokuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi (PSB) babonisa ukulahlekelwa okuncane kokuqonda. Lokhu okutholakele kubonisa ukuthi uhluphekile ukusebenza okuphezulu (ukungalungi) okuyinto a isici esiyinhloko sobuchopho esivela ezilutha izidakamizwa. Izingcaphuno ezimbalwa:

Omunye umphumela ophawulekayo kulokhu kuhlaziywa ukuthi i-PSB ibonisa izinhlangano ezibalulekile eziningana zezici ezingemtholampilo, okubandakanya ukuzethemba okuphansi, ukunciphisa izinga lokuphila, i-BMI ephakanyisiwe, kanye namazinga aphezulu okunciphisa izinkinga eziningana ...

... kungenzeka ukuthi izici zemitholampilo ezikhonjisiwe eqenjini le-PSB empeleni ziwumphumela wokuguquguquka kwezemfundo ephakeme okuholela kokubili kwe-PSB nezinye izici zomtholampilo. Esinye isici esingaba khona sokugcwalisa le ndima kungaba yizinkinga ezingenasici ezitholakala eqenjini le-PSB, ikakhulukazi lezo eziphathelene nokukhumbula, ukusebenza komfutho / ukulawula umfutho nokuthatha izinqumo. Kusukela kulesi sakhiwo, kungenzeka ukulandelela izinkinga ezibonakalayo kwi-PSB nakwezinye izici zomtholampilo, njengokungaboni kahle ngokomzwelo, ekulahlekeni okungokwengqondo ...

Uma izinkinga zokuzicabangela ezivezwe kulokhu kuhlaziywa empeleni ziyisici esiyinhloko se-PSB, lokhu kungase kube nemiphumela ephawulekayo emitholampilo.

31) I-Methylation ye-HPA Axis Izifo Ezihlobene Namadoda Nge-Dispersexual Disorder (Jokinen et al., 2017) - [impendulo yokucindezeleka engasebenzi, izinguquko ze-epigenetic] - Lokhu kuyilandela #16 ngenhla okuyinto eyatholakala ukuthi izilonda zocansi zinezinkinga zokucindezeleka ezingasebenzi - ishintsho esikhulu se-neuro-endocrine esibangelwa ukulutha. Ucwaningo lwamanje luthole izinguquko ze-epigenetic kuma-genes eziphambili ekuphenduleni komuntu nokucindezeleka. Ngezinguquko ze-epigenetic, ukulandelana kwe-DNA akushintshiwe (njengoba kwenzeka ngomsindo). Esikhundleni salokho, isakhi sithegiwe futhi inkulumo yayo ivuliwe noma iphansi (ividiyo emfushane echaza i-epigenetics). Izinguquko ze-epigenetic ezibikiwe kulolu cwaningo zenzeke ekusebenzeni kwe-CRF yegeni. CRF i-neurotransmitter nehomoni okushayela ukuziphatha okuluthayo ezifana nezifiso, futhi a umdlali omkhulu ezimweni eziningi zokuhoxiswa ezitholakalayo ngokuphathelene nazo izinto futhi izidakamizwa zokuziphatha, kuhlanganise umlutha wezocansi.

32) Ukuhlola Ubudlelwane Phakathi Kokuphoqeleka Ngokocansi Nokukhathazeka Ngamazwi Ahlobene Nezocansi Enkathini Yabantu Abasebenza Ngocansi (U-Albery et al., 2017) - [ukucubungula okukhulu / ukuvuselela, ukuhlenga izinhloso] - Lesi sifundo sichaza okutholakele lolu cwaningo lwe-2014 Cambridge University, okuqhathanisa ukukhathazeka kwezilingo ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile kuya ekulawuleni okunempilo. Nakhu okusha: Ucwaningo lwaluhlanganisa "iminyaka yokusebenza ngokobulili" ne-1) izikolo zokuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi kanye no-2) imiphumela yomsebenzi wokuqaphela umxhwele. Phakathi kwalabo ababeka phambili ekubhekaneni nocansi, iminyaka embalwa yokuhlangenwe nakho ngokobulili yayihlotshaniswa nokukhathazeka okukhulu (incazelo yokukhathalela). Ngakho ukuphoqeleka kobulili okuphakeme kunomlando + iminyaka embalwa yokwaziswa ngokocansi = izimpawu ezinkulu zokulutha (ukukhathazeka okukhulu, noma ukuphazanyiswa). Kodwa ukukhathazeka kokungacabangi kunciphisa kakhulu kubasebenzisi abaphoqelela, futhi kuyanyamalala enani eliphezulu kakhulu leminyaka yezocansi. Abalobi baphetha ngokuthi lo mphumela ungabonisa ukuthi iminyaka engaphezulu "yokucindezela ukwenza ucansi" iholela ekuziphatheni okukhulu noma ukuphazamiseka okujwayelekile kwempendulo yokuzijabulisa (ukufunwa kwenhloso). Isiqephu esivela esiphethweni:

Enye incazelo engaba yile miphumela yukuthi njengoba umuntu ocindezelekile ngokocansi enza isenzo sokucindezela ngaphezulu, ithempulethi yokuvusa ehambisanayo iqala [36-38] nokuthi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukuziphatha okudlulele okudingekayo kudingeke ukuba kube nesimo esifanayo sokuvusa. Kuphinde kuthiwa ukuthi njengoba umuntu eziphatha ngendlela ephoqelekile, ama-neuropathways ahlaziywa eminye imicikilisho ethi 'evamile' yesithombe socansi noma izithombe nabantu ngabanye baphendukela eminye imiyalezo ethi 'eyedlulele' ukuze baqaphele ukuvusa okufisayo. Lokhu kuhambisana nomsebenzi obonisa ukuthi abesilisa 'abanempilo' bajwayele ukukhuluma ngendlela ecacile ngokuhamba kwesikhathi nokuthi le nqubo ibonakala ngokunciphisa izimpendulo zokuvusa nokuzikhukhumeza [39]. Lokhu kusikisela ukuthi abanye abaqashile ngokocansi, abahlanganyeli ngokocansi sebebe 'bangenalutho' noma abangenandaba namazwi 'ajwayelekile' ahlobene nocansi asetshenziselwa isifundo samanje futhi njengalokho kuboniswa kwehlisa ukunakwa, kanti labo abanomthwalo wokunyuka nokuzibonela okuncane kakhulu babonisa ukuphazamiseka ngoba le nkinga ibonisa ukuqonda okungcono kakhulu.

33) Ukusebenza Okusebenzayo Kwamadoda Okuzicabangela Ngokwecansi Nokungaxilisi Ngaphambi Kokubuka Nokubukela Ividiyo Eyingozi (I-Messina et al., 2017) - [ukusebenza okungenamandla, ukukhathazeka okukhulu / ukugqugquzela okukhulu] - Ukuvezwa kwesigungu esithintekayo se-porn esebenza emadodeni 'anezimo zokuziphatha ezicindezelayo,' kodwa hhayi ukulawula okunempilo. Isikhulu esiphezulu sokusebenza uma sibhekene nezigcawu ezihlobene nokulutha umlutha kuyimpawu zokuphazamiseka kwezidakamizwa (okubonisa kokubili zashintsha izifunda ze-prefrontal futhi ukuzwela). Okucaphuno:

Lokhu kutholakala kubonisa ukuguquguquka okungcono kwengqondo emva kokugqugquzela ngokobulili ngokulawulwa uma kuqhathaniswa nabathintekayo ngokocansi. Lezi zesekelo zisekela umqondo wokuthi amadoda abesilisa ocansini akufanele asebenzise ngokunenzuzo umphumela wokufunda ongakuthola ohlangothini, okungabangela ukuguqulwa kokuziphatha okungcono. Lokhu kungase kuqondwe njengokuntuleka komphumela wokufunda yiqembu eliphoqeleka ngokocansi lapho bevuselelwa ngokocansi, okufana nalokho okwenzekayo emjikelezweni wokulutha ngokocansi, okuqala ngezinga elikhulayo lokuqashelwa ngokocansi, okulandelwa ukuqaliswa kobulili izikripthi bese i-orgasm, ngokuvamile ihilela ukuchayeka ezimweni eziyingozi.

34) Ingabe Izithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Zingaba Umlutha? Ucwaningo lwe-FMRI lwabantu abafuna ukwelashwa kwezithombe ezingcolile zobulili eziyinkimbinkimbi Sebenzisa (I-Gola et al., 2017) - [ukucubungula okukhulu / ukuvuselela, izimpendulo ezenziwe ngcono] - Ucwaningo lwe-FMRI olubandakanya i-paradigm eyayiyingqayizivele yokuzimela lapho izimo zangaphambili ezingathathi hlangothi zazibikezela ukubukeka kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile. Okucaphuno:

Amadoda asebenzisa nokusebenzisa izithombe ezingcolile nge-porn (PPU) ahluke ekuphenduleni kobuchopho ukuze aqaphele ukubikezela izithombe ezithandayo, kodwa hhayi ekuphenduleni izithombe ezibucayi ngokwabo, ezihambisana isisusa somqondo wokudakwa. Lokhu kusetshenzwa kobuchopho kwakuhambisana nokugqugquzela kokuziphatha okukhulayo ukubuka izithombe ezithandanayo (ukufuna 'okuphakeme' okuphakeme). Ukubuyiselwa kwe-Ventral okubulalayo kwezingcaphuno zokubikezela izithombe ezithinta izithombe kwakuhlobene kakhulu nobukhulu be-PPU, inani lezithombe ezingcolile zobulili ngesonto kanye nenani lamakhompiyutha. Okutholakele kwethu kusikisela ukuthi njengezinto ezisetshenziswa ngokweqile kanye nokugembula kuphazamisa izindlela ze-neural and behavioral ezihlobene nokucubungula ukucubungula kwamaphuzu ezihlobene ngokubaluleka kwizici ezifanele emitholampilo ye-PPU. Lokhu kutholakala kusikisela ukuthi i-PPU ingase imele ukulutha kokuziphatha futhi ukuthi ukungenelela okuwusizo ekubhekiseni ukulutha kwezidakamizwa kanye nokusebenzisa izidakamizwa kufanele kuhlolwe ukujwayela nokusetshenziswa ekusizeni amadoda ane-PPU.

35) Izinyathelo Eziqaphelayo Nezingezona Zenhliziyo Yokuzizwa: Ingabe Ziyakhathaza Ngokuvame Ukusetshenziswa Kwezingcolile? (Kunaharan et al., 2017) - [ukujwayela noma ukuhlenga izinkinga] - Ukuhlolwa okuhlolwayo kwabasebenzisi bezithombe zocansi (ukufundwa kwe-EEG & Impendulo Yokuqala) emifanekisweni ehlukahlukene yokunciphisa imizwa - kuhlanganise ne-eerotica. Ukutadisha kuthole umehluko wezinzwa eziningana phakathi kwabasebenzisi abancane bezintandokazi ze-porn nabasebenzisi be-porn abakhulu bezintambo. Okucaphuno:

Okutholakisayo kusikisela ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kubonakala sengathi kunethonya ekuphenduleni okungenakuqaphela kobuchopho ekucindezelweni kwemizwelo engaboniswa yi-self-report ecacile.

I-4.1. Ukulinganisa okucacile: Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi iqembu eliphezulu lokusebenzisa i-porn lilinganise izithombe ezibukeka sengathi zingathandeki ngaphezu kweqembu eliphakathi. Abalobi basikisela ukuthi lokhu kungenzeka ngenxa yemvelo efana ne "soft-core" yezithombe "ezibukeka" eziqukethwe ku-database ye-IAPS ngaphandle kokunikeza izinga lokuvuselela okungase lifune, njengoba liboniswe nguHarper noHodgins [58] ukuthi ngokubukwa njalo kwezinto eziphathekayo zobulili ezingcolile, abantu abaningi bavame ukuqhubekela phambili ekubukeni izinto eziqinile ukuze balondoloze izinga elifanayo lokuvukela umzimba. Isigaba esithi "esimnandi" sinezilinganiso ze-valence yizo zonke amaqembu amathathu okufanele afane nesilinganiso esiphezulu sokusebenzisa iqembu njengezithombe njengento engavamile kakhulu kunamanye amaqembu. Lokhu kungabuye kube ngenxa yemifanekiso "enhle" evezwe engabakhuthazi ngokwanele kubantu abasebenzisa iqembu eliphezulu. Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ngokuqhubekayo ukulawulwa kwemvelo ekusetshenzisweni kokuqukethwe okuphazamisayo ngenxa yemiphumela yokuhlala kubantu abavame ukufuna ukwaziswa kocansi [3, 7, 8]. Kuyizingxabano zabalobi ukuthi lo mphumela ungaba nemiphumela yemiphumela ebonwe.

I-4.3. I-Startle Reflex Modulation (SRM): Isihlobo esiphezulu se-amplitude startle effect esiboniswe emaqenjini asetshenziswayo aphansi nesiphakathi angacaciswa nalabo abaseqembu ngokuzigwema ukugwema ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile, njengoba bengase bakuthole kungabi mnandi kakhulu. Ngaphandle kwalokho, imiphumela etholakalayo ingase ibe ngenxa yomphumela wokuhlala, lapho abantu kula maqembu bebukela izithombe ezingcolile ezingaphezu kwalokho abakusho ngokucacile-mhlawumbe ngenxa yezizathu zokwenza amahloni phakathi kwabanye, njengoba imiphumela yokujwayela iboniswe ukwandisa amehlo e-lookle aphikisana nezimpendulo [41, 42].

36) Ukuvezwa kwe-Stimuli yezocansi kudonsa ukukhuphuka okuphezulu okuholela ekubandakanyekeni okuqhubekayo ekukhulekeleni kwe-Cyber ​​phakathi kwamadoda (I-Cheng ne-Chiou, 2017) - Ukuzikhandla okukhulu okusebenzayo, ukukhishwa okukhulu komzimba - ukuhlolwa kokucubungula] - Ezifundweni ezimbili ezivezwa ezenzweni zobulili ezibukwayo ziholela ku: 1) ukukhushulwa okukhulu kokubambezeleka (ukungakwazi ukulibazisa ukuthokoza), i-2) ukuthambekela okukhulu kokubandakanya ukuhlukumezeka kwe-cyber, i-3) ngaphezulu ukuthambekela kokuthenga izimpahla ezingekho emthethweni futhi uhlasele i-akhawunti yomuntu we-Facebook. Ukuhlanganiswa lokhu kubonisa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kocansi kuyandisa ukwanda futhi kunganciphisa imisebenzi ethile yokuphatha (ukuzithiba, ukwahlulela, imiphumela yokubona kwangaphambili, ukulawula ukucindezela). Umbhalo ocacile:

Abantu bavame ukubhekana nesimo socansi ngesikhathi sokusebenzisa i-intanethi. Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ukuthi ukugqugquzela ukugqugquzela isisusa socansi kungabangela ukungabi nandaba okukhulu kwamadoda, njengoba kuboniswa ekukhishweni kwesikhathi esiningi (okungukuthi, ukuthambekela kokukhetha okuncane, okuzuzayo okusheshayo, okuzayo).

Ekuphetheni, imiphumela yamanje ibonisa ukuhlangana phakathi kocansi (isibonelo, ukuvezwa kwezithombe zabesifazane abashakazi noma izambatho zokuvusa ucansi) kanye nokubandakanyeka kwabantu ekuqhutshweni kwe-cyber. Okutholakele kwethu kusikisela ukuthi ukungathandeki komuntu nokuzithiba, njengoba kubonakaliswe ukukhipha isaphulelo sesikhathi, kungase kuvele ukwehluleka ekubhekaneni nesimo sobulili obukhona. Amadoda angase azuze ekuqapheliseni ukuthi ukuvezwa kwesenzo socansi kuhlotshaniswa nokukhetha nokuziphatha kwabo okulandelayo. Okutholakele kwethu kusikisela ukuthi ukuhlangabezana nesenzo socansi kungabangela amadoda emgwaqweni we-cyber delinquency

Imiphumela yamanje iphakamisa ukuthi ukutholakala okuphezulu kwezinto eziphathelene nobulili ku-intanethi kungase kuhlotshaniswe eduze nokuziphatha kwe-cyber-delinquent kwamadoda kunalokho okucatshangwa ngaphambilini.

37) Izibikezelo ze-(Okuyinkimbinkimbi) Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Inthanethi Izinto ezicacile ngokocansi: Umsebenzi Wokuziphatha Ngezocansi kanye Nendlela Ecacile Indlela Yokuziphatha Ngokwezinto Ezingcolile (ngocansi)Stark et al., 2017) - [cue greater reactivity / ukugqugquzela / ukuthanda] - Amaphuzu:

Ucwaningo lwamanje lucwaninga ukuthi isisusa sobulili nokuziphatha okubonakalayo ekutheni izinto eziphathelene nobulili zikhona yini izibikezelo zokusetshenziswa kwe-SEM enenkinga kanye nesikhathi esisodwa esichithwa ukubuka i-SEM. Esivivinyo sokuziphatha, sasebenzise umsebenzi wokuVimbela ukuVimbela (AAT) wokulinganisa ukuthambekela okuphelele kokuthinta izinto zocansi. Ukubambisana okuhle phakathi kokuthambekela okungahambi kahle kwe-SEM kanye nesikhathi esisodwa esichithwa ekubukeni i-SEM kungachazwa ngemiphumela yokuqaphela: Ukuthambekela okunamandla okungaqondakali kungachazwa njengengqayizivele yokubhekelela i-SEM. Isihloko esinalo ukukhathazeka singase sikhangwe kakhulu ezindabeni zobulili kwi-inthanethi okuholela ekutheni isikhathi esiphezulu sichithwa kumasayithi we-SEM.

38) Ukuqapha Ukulutha Kwezithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile okusekelwe kwiNqubo yeComputerational Neurophysiological (2018) - Umbhalo ocacile:

Kuleli phepha, indlela yokusebenzisa isignali yengqondo evela endaweni yangaphambili ithunyelwe ngokusebenzisa i-EEG ihlongozwa ukuthola ukuthi umhlanganyeli angase abe nomlutha wezocansi noma ngenye indlela. Isebenza njengendlela ehambisanayo yokubhalwa kwemibuzo ejwayelekile yengqondo. Imiphumela yokuhlola ibonisa ukuthi abahlanganyeli abanomlutha babe nemisebenzi yamagagasi aphansi e-region esifundeni sobuchopho uma kuqhathaniswa nabahlanganyeli abangewona umlutha. Kungabonwa ngokusebenzisa i-spectra yamandla esetshenziswa nge-Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Ithimba le-theta libonisa nokuthi kukhona ukungafani phakathi komlutha nomlutha. Noma kunjalo, umehluko awusobala njengo-band band.

39) Ukunciphisa grey nokuguqulwa kwesimo sokuphumula-state ku-gyrus esesikhundleni esiphakeme phakathi kwabantu abanezimo eziyinkimbinkimbi zokuxhumene nocansi (2018) - Ukukhubazeka kwezinto ezimpunga ku-cortex yesikhashana, ukuxhumana okungasebenzi okuphakathi kwe-cortex yesikhashana kanye ne-precuneus & caudate] - Ucwaningo lwe-fMRI oluqhathanisa ukuhlolisiswa ngokobulili oluhlolwe ngokucophelela ("ukuziphatha okunengqondo kokuxilongwa ngokobulili") kwizihloko zokulawula okunempilo. Uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawulwa kwezidakamizwa zocansi kwakukhona: i-1) yanciphisa indaba ebomvu ngesikhathi se-lobes (izifunda ezihambisana nokuvimbela izifiso zocansi); I-2) yanciphisa i-precuneus kuya ku-cortex yesikhashana yokuxhumana ukusebenza (kungase kubonise ukungavamile kokukwazi ukushintsha ukunakwa); I-3) yanciphisa i-caudate kuya ku-cortex yesikhashana ukuxhuma ukusebenza (kungavimbela ukulawula okuphezulu kwezimvo). Okucaphuno:

Lokhu kutholakala kubonisa ukuthi ukulahlekelwa kwesakhiwo ngaphakathi kwe-gyrus yesikhashana kanye nokuhlanganiswa okusebenzayo okusebenza phakathi kwe-gyrus yesikhashana kanye nezindawo ezithile (okungukuthi, i-precuneus kanye ne-caudate) kungabangela ukuphazamiseka ekuvimbelweni kwe-sexic emphakathini kubantu abane-PHB. Ngakho-ke, le miphumela iphakamisa ukuthi izinguquko ezakhiweni kanye nokuxhumana okusebenzayo ku-gyrus yesikhashana kungenzeka kube yizici ezithile ze-PHB futhi zingase zibe yiziphakamiso ze-biomarker zokuxilongwa kwe-PHB.

Ukugqama okubalulekile grey ku-tonsil kwesokudla ye-cerebellar nokuhlanganiswa okwandisiwe kwe-tereillar cerebellar kwesokunxele ne-STG kwesokunxele nakho kwabonwa .... Ngakho-ke, kungenzeka ukuthi umthamo wegrey ukwanda nokusebenza okusebenzayo ku-cerebellum kuhlotshaniswa nokuziphatha okucindezelayo kubantu abane-PHB.

Ngokufingqa, i-VBM yamanje kanye nokuhlola okusebenzayo kubonisa ukulahlekelwa kwezinto ezimpunga nokuhlanganiswa okusebenzayo ku-gyrus yesikhashana phakathi kwabantu abane-PHB. Okubaluleke nakakhulu, isakhiwo esinciphile kanye nokuxhumana okusebenzayo akuhambisani kakhulu nobukhulu be-PHB. Lezi zitholakele zinikeza ulwazi olusha emisebenzini engezansi ye-neural ye-PHB.

40) Izindlela zokubuka i-intanethi-izithombe zobulili ezingcolile-sebenzisa isifo: Ukuhlukahluka kwamadoda nabesifazane ngokuphathelene nokukhathazeka kokuziqhenya kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile (2018) - [ukucubungula okukhulu / ukuvuselela, ukuthanda]. Okucaphuno

Abalobi abaningana bacabangela i-intanethi-izithombe zobulili ezingcolile-sebenzisa isifo (i-IPD) njenge-disorder disorder. Enye yezinhlelo eziye zafundwa ngokujulile ezinkingeni eziphathelene nezidakamizwa-nokungenazo izidakamizwa kuyisimo esiqhakathekile sokugxila ekubhekiseni izidakamizwa eziphathelene nokulutha. Ukukhathazeka okucatshangelwayo kuchazwa njengezinqubo zokucabangela zombono womuntu ezithinteka yiziphakamiso ezihlobene nokulutha umlutha ezibangelwa ukukhuthazwa okuhambisana nesimo esikulo. Kucatshangelwa embonini ye-I-PACE ukuthi ngabanye abajwayele ukuthuthukisa izimpawu ze-IPD eziqanjiwe ngokugcwele kanye nokuqaphela-ukusebenzisana nokulangazelela kuphakama futhi kwandiswe kwinqubo yokulutha. Ukuphenya indima yokukhathazeka ekuthuthukiseni i-IPD, siphenya isampula se-174 abesilisa nababesithathi besifazane. Ukuqaphela ukukhathazeka kwalinganiswa ne-Visual Probe Task, lapho ababambiqhaza bekudingeka baphendule ngemicibisholo ebonakala ngemuva kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile noma ezingathathi hlangothi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, abahlanganyeli kwakudingeka babonise ukuvuka kwabo ngokocansi okubangelwa izithombe zobulili ezingcolile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuthambekela kwe-IPD kwakulinganiswa ngokusebenzisa i-Internetsex Test Addiction Test. Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo ibonise ubuhlobo phakathi kokukhathazeka nokukhathazeka kwesifo se-IPD okwehlukaniswe kancane yizinkomba zokuqamba-ukucubungula nokuthanda. Ngenkathi amadoda nabesifazane ngokuvamile behluke ngezikhathi zokuphendula ngenxa yezithombe zobulili ezingcolile, ukuhlaziywa kokunciphisa okulinganisiwe kwembula ukuthi ukukhathazeka okucatshangelwayo kwenzeka ngokuzimela ngaphandle kobulili kumongo wezimpawu ze-IPD. Imiphumela isekela ukucabanga okungokwemvelo kwe-I-PACE imodeli mayelana nesibindi sokugqugquzela izici ezihlobene nokulutha izidakamizwa futhi iyahambisana nezifundo ezibhekene nokubhekwa-ukusebenzisana nokufuna ukukhathazeka kwezidakamizwa.

Zonke lezi zifundo zezinzwa zathola:

  1. Ubuchopho obuhlobene nobudlova obukhulu be-3 bushintsha: ukuzwela, ukungafuneki, Futhi ubuzenzisi.
  2. Ukusetshenziswa kocansi okuningi okuhambisana ne-grey less in circuit circuit (dorsal striatum).
  3. Ukusetshenziswa kwe-porn ngaphezulu okuhambisana nomsebenzi omncane wokuvuselelwa kwesifunda lapho ubheka izithombe ezincane zocansi.
  4. Ukusetshenziswa kocansi okungaphezulu kuhambisana nokuphazanyiswa kwezixhumanisi ze-neural phakathi kwesifunda somvuzo kanye ne-prefrontal cortex.
  5. Izilingo zinezikhundla ezinkulu ezenzweni zobulili, kodwa umsebenzi ongaphansi kobuchopho obhekene nesimo esivamile (ukuhambisana nokulutha kwezidakamizwa).
  6. Ukusetshenziswa kobulili / ukuchayeka kocansi okuhlobene nokuphushulwa okukhulu okubambezeleka (ukungakwazi ukulibazisa ukuzithokozisa). Lokhu yisibonakaliso sokusebenza okuphephile okuphezulu.
  7. I-60% yezifundo ezinomlutha wezithombe ezingcolile zobulili ocwaningweni olulodwa zathola i-ED noma i-libido ephansi nabalingani, kepha hhayi nge-pornography: bonke bathi ukusetshenziswa kwe-intanethi ye-intanethi kubangele i-ED / ephansi ye-libido.
  8. Ukuhlaziya okuthuthukisiwe kufana nabasebenzisi bezidakamizwa. Ibonisa ukuzwela (umkhiqizo we DeltaFosb).
  9. Ukufuna nokuthanda kakhulu izithombe zobulili ezingcolile, kodwa hhayi ukuthanda okuningi. Lokhu kuvumelana nemodeli eyamukelekile yokulutha umlutha - ukukhuthaza ukukhuthaza.
  10. Izidakamizwa ezingcolile zinokuthandwa kakhulu kobuciko bocansi kodwa ubuchopho babo bujwayele ukujwayela izithombe zocansi. Ayikho ngaphambili.
  11. Abasha abasebenzisi bezithombe ezibucayi baningi kakhulu ekusebenziseni ukukhishwa kwesikhungo esikhwameni sokuvuza.
  12. Ukufundwa kwe-EEG ephakeme (P300) lapho abasebenzisi be-porn bezitholakala kuma-porn cues (okwenzekayo kwezinye izidakamizwa).
  13. Isifiso esingaphansi kocansi nomuntu ohambisana nokuqamba okukhulu-ukubuyisela emuva kwezithombe ezingcolile.
  14. Ukusebenzisa izithombe ezingcolile okuhlobene kakhulu ne-LPP ephansi ngamaplitude uma ubuka kancane izithombe zezithombe zobulili: kubonisa ukujwayela noma ukungafuni ukuhlaziya.
  15. Ama-axis ahlukumezayo e-HPA futhi aguqulwe ama-circuits okucindezeleka kwengqondo, okwenzeka emilonyeni yezidakamizwa (kanye nomthamo omkhulu we-amygdala, ohlobene nokucindezeleka okungapheli komphakathi).
  16. Izinguquko ze-Epigenetic ezakhiweni zofuzo ezisemqoka ekuphenduleni ukucindezeleka komuntu futhi ezihlobene ngokuhambisana nokulutha.
  17. Amazinga aphezulu we-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) - eyenzeka futhi ekusebenziseni kabi izidakamizwa nokulutha.
  18. Iphutha lezinkinga ze-cortex ezimpunga zesikhashana; uxhumano olubi phakathi kwezinkampani zangasese nezinye izifunda eziningana
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