izifundo zezinzwa

Izifundo ze-Neurological on Porn Use

Ososayensi baye basebenzisa izifundo zezinzwa ukuze babheke imiphumela yezithombe zobulili ezingcolile basebenzisa amathuluzi kuhlanganise i-fMRI, i-MRI ne-EEG. Baye badala neuro-endocrine kanye neuro-pyschological izifundo. Leli khasi liye lashintshwa kusuka Yourbrainonporn.com. Sicela uvakashele Yourbrainonporn.com uma ufuna ukwaziswa okwengeziwe okujulile mayelana nosesho lwamuva emiphumeleni yokusetshenziswa kocansi.

Izifundo zezinzwa ezingezansi zihlelwe ngezindlela ezimbili. Okokuqala ngobuchopho obuhlobene nomlutha buyashintsha ngamunye kubikiwe. Ngezansi ukuthi izifundo ezifanayo zihlelwe ngosuku lokushicilelwa, ngezingcaphuno kanye nokucaciswa.

Izinhlu zokuguqulwa kobuchopho obuhlobene nomlutha: Izinguquko ezine ezinkulu zobuchopho ezibangelwa ukulutha umlutha zichazwe ngu UGeorge F. Koob futhi Nora D. Volkow ekubuyekezweni kwawo okuphawulekayo. UKoob unguMqondisi weNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), kanti uVolkow ungumqondisi weNational Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Lanyatheliswa kuyi-New England Journal of Medicine: Izinzuzo ze-Neurobiologic ezivela kwi-Brain Disease Model of Addiction (2016). Leli phepha lichaza izinguquko ezinkulu zobuchopho ezihilelekile kokubili izidakamizwa nezidakamizwa zokuziphatha, ngenkathi zichaza isigaba sokuqala sokuthi umlutha wezocansi ukhona:

"Siphetha ngokuthi i-neuroscience iyaqhubeka isekela uhlobo lwesifo sobuchopho. Ucwaningo lwe-neuroscience kule ndawo alugcini nje ngokunikeza amathuba amasha okuvimbela nokwelashwa kwezidakamizwa ezidakayo kanye nezidakamizwa eziphathelene nokuziphatha (isib. Ekudleni, sex, nokugembula) .... "

Iphepha leVolkow neKoob lichaze izinguquko ezine eziyisisekelo ezibangelwa ukulutha, okuyilezi: 1) Ukukwazisa, 2) Ukungahlehlisi, 3) Izijikelezo zokungasebenzi ezingasebenzi (ukungazenzisi), i-4) Uhlelo lokucindezeleka olungasebenzi. Yonke i-4 yalezi zinguquko zengqondo ziye zafundwa phakathi kwezifundo eziningi zezinzwa ezibalulwe kuleli khasi:

  • Izifundo zokubika ukuzwela (cue-reactivity & cravings) kubasebenzisi be-porn / imilutha yezocansi: 1, 2, 3, 45, 6, 7, 89101112131415161718192021.
  • Izifundo zokubika ukungafuneki noma ukujwayela (okuholela ekubekezeleni) kubasebenzisi bezithombe zocansi / izidakamizwa zocansi: 1, 23456.
  • Ukucwaninga kokubikwa kokusebenza okumpofu kakhulu (ubuzenzisi) noma ishintshwe umsebenzi wokuzithandela kubasebenzisi be-porn / izidakamizwa zocansi: 1, 23, 4, 567891011121314.
  • Izifundo ezibonisa a uhlelo lokucindezeleka olungasebenzi kubasebenzisi be-porn / izidakamizwa zocansi: 123.

Izinhlu ngosuku lokushicilelwa: Uhlu olulandelayo luqukethe zonke izifundo zezinzwa ezishicilelwe kubasebenzisi be-porn kanye nezilonda zocansi. Ucwaningo ngalunye olubalwe ngezansi luhambisana nencazelo noma i-excerpt, futhi lubonisa ukuthi yikuphi ukuguqulwa kobuchopho obuhlobene no-4 (s) okuxoxiswane nakho okutholakele okuvumela:

1) Ukuphenya okuPhezulu kwezinto eziphambene nezimo ze-Impulsive Neuroanatomical zokuziphatha kocansi okuphoqelekile (I-Miner et al., 2009) 

[amasekhethi angasebenzi kahle ngaphambili / umsebenzi ophethe kabi] - Ucwaningo lwe-fMRI olubandakanya kakhulu abayimilutha yezocansi. Ucwaningo lubika ngokuziphatha okungacabangi emsebenzini weGo-NoGo kubantu abayimilutha yezocansi (abesilisa nabesifazane) uma kuqhathaniswa nababambiqhaza bokulawula. Ukuhlolwa kobuchopho kuveze ukuthi imilutha yezocansi yayihlelile udaba olumhlophe lwe-prefrontal cortex uma kuqhathaniswa nezilawuli. Izingcaphuno:

Ngaphandle kwezinyathelo ezibalwe ngenhla, iziguli ze-CSB zibuye zibonise ukungathandeki okukhulu emsebenzini wokuziphatha, i-Go-No Go inqubo.

Imiphumela ibuye ikhombise ukuthi iziguli ze-CSB zikhombisa isifunda esiphakeme kakhulu esiphezulu se-frontal sisho ukungafani (MD) kunokulawula. Ukuhlaziywa okuhlanganyelwene kuboniswe ubudlelwane obubalulekile phakathi kokungalingani kanye nendawo engaphansi kwe-anisotrophy ye-fractional (FA) ne-MD, kodwa ayikho inhlangano enezilinganiso eziphakeme ezisesifundazwe. Ukuhlaziywa okunjalo kuboniswe ubudlelwane obubi obuphakathi kwe-frontal lobe MD kanye ne-compulsive behavior behavior inventory.

2) Ukungafani okubikwayo ngezinyathelo zomsebenzi ophezulu kanye nokuziphatha kocansi phakathi kwesimuli nesiguli samadoda (Reid et al., 2010) 
[Umsebenzi ophethe kabi] - Ingcaphuno:

Iziguli ezifuna usizo ekuziphatheni kwe-hypersexual zivame ukukhombisa izici zokungacabangi, ukuqina kwengqondo, ukwahlulela okungafanele, ukwehluleka kokulawulwa kwemizwelo, nokukhathazeka ngokweqile ngocansi. Ezinye zalezi zici zivamile nasezigulini ezethula ngezifo zemizwa ezihambisana nokungasebenzi okuphezulu. Lokhu okubonile kuholele ekuphenyweni kwamanje kokwehluka phakathi kweqembu leziguli ezi-hypersexual (n = 87) nesampula somphakathi esingeyona eye-hypersexual (n = 92) yamadoda asebenzisa i-Behaeve Rating Inventory ye-Executive Function-Adult Version Ukuziphatha kwe-Hypersexual kuhlobene kahle ngama-indices womhlaba wonke wokungasebenzi okuphezulu kanye nokuxhaswa okuningana kwe-BRIEF-A. Lokhu okutholakele kunikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokusekela umbono wokuthi ukungasebenzi okuphezulu kungabandakanyeka ekuziphatheni kwe-hypersexual.

3) Ukubuka Izithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Ku-intanethi: Indima Yokulinganisa Ngokweqhaza Yezocansi kanye Nezimo Zengqondo-I-Psychiatric for Ukusebenzisa Ama-Sex Sites E-Inthanethi ngokweqile (I-Brand et al., 2011) 
[izifiso ezinkulu / ukugqugquzela kanye nomsebenzi ophethwe kabi] - Isiqephu:

Imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi izinkinga ezibikwa ngokuzimela ekuphileni kwakho kwansuku zonke ezihlobene nemisebenzi yezocansi e-intanethi zabikezelwa ukulinganisa okuhloswe ngokobulili okubonakalayo kwezinto ezibucayi, ukuqina okukhulu kwezimpawu zengqondo, kanye nenani lezinhlelo zobulili ezisetshenziselwa ukuhlala kumasayithi ezocansi e-Internet ekuphileni kwansuku zonke, ngenkathi isikhathi esichithwa kumasayithi ezocansi e-intanethi (amaminithi ngosuku) asizange ibambe iqhaza ekuchazeni ukuhlukahluka kwinqephu ye-IATsex. Sibona ukufana okukhona phakathi kwezinqubo zokucabangela nezengqondo ezingase zibe nomthelela ekulondolozeni ucansi lwe-inthanethi ngokweqile nalabo abachazwe kubantu abancike ngokweqile.

4) Isithombe se-Pornographic Ukucubungula ama-interferes ngokusebenza komsebenzi wokukhumbula (Laier et al., 2013) 
[izifiso ezinkulu / ukugqugquzela kanye nomsebenzi ophethwe kabi] - Isiqephu:

Abanye abantu babika izinkinga ngesikhathi futhi ngemuva kokubandakanyeka kobulili e-intanethi, njengokulala okulahlekile nokukhohlwa ukuqashwa, okuhlobene nemiphumela emibi yokuphila. Enye indlela engase iholele kulezi zinhlobo zinkinga ukuthi ukuvota ngokocansi ngesikhathi sezocansi kwi-intanethi kungaphazamisa umthamo wokusebenza (WM), okwenza kube khona ukunganakwa kolwazi olumayelana nemvelo ngakho-ke ukuzenza izinqumo ezingalungile. Imiphumela ibonise ukuthi i-WM iyingozi kakhulu esimweni sezithombe zobulili ezingcolile komsebenzi we-4 emuva uma kuqhathaniswa nezimo zesithombe ezisele ezisele. Okutholakele kuxoxwa mayelana nokulutha kwe-intanethi ngoba ukuphazamiseka kwe-WM ngemigomo ehlobene nokulutha izidakamizwa kuyaziwa ngokusuka kwezidakamizwa.

5) Ama-Interferes Okucubungula Ngesithombe Sobulili Ngokwenza Izinqumo Ngaphansi Kokungaboni kahle (Laier et al., 2013) 
[izifiso ezinkulu / ukugqugquzela kanye nomsebenzi ophethwe kabi] - Isiqephu:

Ukusebenza kwezinqumo kwakubi nakakhulu lapho izithombe zobulili zihlotshaniswa nekhadi eliyingozi ekuqhathaniswa nokusebenza lapho izithombe zobulili zixhunyaniswa nezinsika ezizuzayo. Ukuvusa okucatshangelwayo ngokobulili kuhlolisisa ubuhlobo phakathi komsebenzi womsebenzi kanye nokusebenza kwezinqumo. Lolu cwaningo lugcizelele ukuthi ukuvuswa kocansi kuphazamise ukwenziwa kwezinqumo, okungase kuchaze ukuthi kungani abanye abantu behlangabezana nemiphumela emibi ekuhloleni kokusebenzisa i-inthanethi.

6) Ukulutha kocansi lwe-Cyber: Ukuvuswa kocansi okuhlangenwe nakho lapho ubheka izithombe zobulili ezingcolile hhayi okwangempela-oxhumana nabo ngokobulili benza umehluko (Laier et al., 2013) 
[izifiso ezinkulu / ukugqugquzela kanye nomsebenzi ophethwe kabi] - Isiqephu:

Imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi izinkomba zokuvusa ngocansi nokufisa ukubhekwa kobulili be-intanethi ukuthambekela okubikezelwe ekubhekaneni nokuxilongwa kwe-inthanethi ocansini ekuqaleni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kuboniswe ukuthi abasebenzisi be-inthanethi bezinkinga zokuxoxa nge-inthanethi babika ukuvusa okukhulu kocansi nokufuna ukusabela okubangelwa isethulo se-pornography. Kuzo zombili izifundo, inamba kanye nekhwalithi exhumana nabo ngokoqobo ngokobulili ayengahlotshaniswa nokulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi. Imiphumela isekela ukuxhaswa kwezinto zokuzithokozisa, okuqala ukuqinisa, ukufunda izindlela, nokufisa ukuba yizinqubo ezifanele ekuthuthukiseni nasekugcinweni kokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cybersex. Okubi noma okungaqiniseki koxhumana nabo ngokoqobo ngokobulili abakwazi ukuchaza ngokugcwele ukulutha kwe-inthanethi ngocansi.

[ukucacisa okukhulu okwenziwe kabusha okuhlobene nesifiso esincane sobulili: ukuzwela nokwakheka] - Lolu cwaningo lwe-EEG lwaludlulisiwe kumaphephandaba njengobungqingili bokuthi kukhona ukubheja kocansi / ucansi. AkunjaloSteele et al. I-2013 empeleni ikhombisa ukwesekwa kokubili ukulutha kwezidakamizwa kanye nokusebenzisa i-porn ekulawuleni phansi isifiso socansi. Kanjani? Ucwaningo lubike ukufundwa kwe-EEG ephakeme (ngokuhlobene nezithombe ezingathathi hlangothi) lapho izihloko zivezwa kancane ezithombeni zobulili ezingcolile. Izifundo zibonisa njalo ukuthi i-P300 ephakeme kwenzeka uma izilonda zivezwa ezinkomba (ezifana nezithombe) ezihlobene nokulutha kwayo.

Ngokuhambisana ne Ucwaningo lweCambridge University luhlola izinhlelo, lolu cwaningo lwe-EEG lubuye lubonise ukucubungula okukhulu kwe-porn ekuxhumaniseni nesifiso esingaphansi kocansi oluhlukanisiwe. Ukukubeka ngenye indlela - abantu abanomqondo ovulekile owenza ubuciko be-porn bekungcono kakhulu ukushaya indlwabu enecala kunokuba babe nobulili nomuntu wangempela. Ngokumangalisa, okhulumela ucwaningo Nicole Prause wathi abasebenzisi be-porn babevele babe "ne-libido ephezulu," kodwa imiphumela yocwaningo ithi okuphambene ngqo (isifiso sezifundo zezocansi ezithandanayo kwakuyehla ngokuphathelene nokusetshenziswa kwazo kocansi).

Bonke laba ababili Steele et al. okutholakele kubonisa ukuthi umsebenzi obalulekile wobuchopho obunamathekisthi (izithombe ezingcolile), kodwa ukuphindaphinda okuncane kumvuzo wemvelo (ubulili nomuntu). Bobabili yizimpawu zokulutha umlutha. Amaphepha ayisithupha abuyekezwa ngontanga achaza iqiniso: 123456. Futhi bheka lokhu I-YBOP enkulu ihlaziya.

Ngaphandle kwezimangalo eziningi ezingasekelwa emaphephandabeni, kuphazamisa ukuthi isifundo se-Prause sika-2013 EGG sidlulise ukubuyekezwa kontanga, njengoba sibhekene nezimpikiswano ezinkulu zendlela: 1) izifundo ayingqayizivele (abesilisa, abesifazane, abangewona abesilisa nabesifazane); Izihloko ze-2) zikhona hhayi ukuhlolwa kwezifo zengqondo noma izidakamizwa; I-3) isifundo akukho iqembu lokulawula lokuqhathanisa; Imibuzo ye-4) akuqinisekisiwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-porn noma ukulutha kocansi.

8) Ukwakhiwa kobuchopho nokuxhumana okusebenzayo Okuhlangene Nezithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Ukusetshenziswa: I-Brain on Porn (UKuhn noGallinat, 2014) 
[ukwehlisa ithemba, ukujwayela, namasekhethi angaphambi kokusebenza]. Lolu cwaningo lwe-Max Planck Institute fMRI lubike ukutholakala kwezinzwa ze-3 ezihambisana namazinga aphezulu okusetshenziswa kocansi: (1) uhlelo oluncane lomvuzo wohlelo (dorsal striatum), (2) ukwenziwa komvuzo omncane ngenkathi kubukwa kafushane izithombe zocansi, (3) ukuxhumana okungasebenzi kahle phakathi kwe-dorsal striatum ne-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Abaphenyi bahumushe okutholakele kwe-3 njengesibonakaliso semiphumela yokuvezwa kocansi lwesikhathi eside. Uthe isifundo,

Lokhu kuvumelana ne-hypothesis ukuthi ukuvezwa okukhulu kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kuholela ekulawuleni phansi phansi kwemibono ye-neural yemvelo kwisenzo sobulili.

Lapho echaza ukuxhumana okumpofu okusebenza phakathi kwe-PFC kanye ne-striatum isifundo sathi,

Ukungasebenzi kwalesi sigaba kuye kwahlotshaniswa nokukhetha okungalungile kokuziphatha, njengokufuna izidakamizwa, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kungaba nomphumela omubi ongenakho

Umbhali oholayo USimone Kühn ukhulume ngokukhulumela i-Max Planck:

Sicabanga ukuthi izihloko ezinezinhlelo zokuzijabulisa ezingcolile zidinga ukukhuthazwa okwandayo ukuze zithole isilinganiso esifanayo somvuzo. Lokhu kungasho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa njalo kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ngokweqile kudonsa uhlelo lwakho lomvuzo. Lokho kungafanelana ngokuphelele ne-hypothesis ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zomvuzo zidinga ukukhuthazwa okukhulayo.

9) Ama-Neural Correlates e-Sexual Cue Reactivity kuNobuntu abangenazo ngaphandle kokucindezela ngokocansi (ngaphandle kocansi)Voon et al., 2014) 
[sensitization / cue-reactivity and desensitization] Owokuqala ochungechungeni lwezifundo zaseCambridge University uthole iphethini efanayo yokusebenza kobuchopho kwizidakamizwa ze-porn (izifundo ze-CSB) njengoba kubonakala kwizidakamizwa nezidakwa - ukuqaphela kabusha noma ukuvuselela. Hola umcwaningi Valerie Voon Wathi:

Kukhona umehluko ocacile emisebenzini yobuchopho phakathi kweziguli ezinokuziphatha okucindezelayo ngokocansi kanye nezisebenzi zokuzithandela ezinempilo. Lokhu kungezwani kuveza izidakamizwa ezidakamizwa.

I-Voon et al., I-2014 ithole nokuthi izilonda ezingcolile zihambisana imodeli evumelekile yokulutha yokufuna "it" ngaphezulu, kodwa hhayi ukuthanda "it" noma ngaphezulu. Umbhalo ocacile:

Uma kuqhathaniswa namavolontiya anempilo, izifundo ze-CSB zinezifiso ezingathí sina zobulili noma zifuna ukucacisa amagama futhi zinezici ezithandwayo ezikhudlwana ezinqumweni ezibucayi, ngaleyo ndlela zibonisa ukuhlukaniswa phakathi kokufuna nokuthanda

Abacwaningi baphinde babike ukuthi i-60% yezifundo (isilinganiso sobudala: 25) kunzima ukufeza ama-erections / ukuvusa nabalingani bangempela, kodwa kungase kutholakale izilungiselelo zokuzijabulisa nge-porn. Lokhu kubonisa ukuzwela noma ukujwayela. Okucaphuno:

Izihloko ze-CSB zibike ukuthi ngenxa yokusebenzisa ngokweqile izinto zokwenza ucansi ngokucacile ... .. okuhlangenwe nakho kwe-libido noma umsebenzi we-erectile wehlelwe ngokuqondile ebuhlotsheni obungokwenyama nabesifazane (nakuba kungekho ebuhlotsheni obubonakalayo ngokobulili) ...

Izihloko ze-CSB uma kuqhathaniswa namavolontiya anempilo ayebhekene nobunzima obunzima ngokuvuswa kobulili futhi ahlangabezane nobunzima obukhulu be-erectile ebuhlotsheni obusondelene nabo obucansi kodwa hhayi ekuziphatheni ngokocansi.

10) Ukuthuthukiswa Kwezimpawu Zokukhangisa Ngokuqondene Nezocansi Ezizimele Ngabantu Abangenazo ngaphandle Kokucindezela Ngokweqhaza Ngokwecansi (UMechelmans et al., 2014) 
[sensitization / cue-reactivity] - Ucwaningo lwesibili lwaseCambridge University. Ingcaphuno:

Ukutholakala kwethu kokuhlaziya okucatshangelwayo ... kusho ukuthi kungenzeka ukugqashuka ngokubheka okuthuthukisiwe okubheke ekuhlolisweni kwezidakamizwa ezibhekene nezidakamizwa. Lezi zitholakele zivumelanisa nokutholakala kwamuva kwe-neural reactivity ezichazweni zobulili [eziluthayo ezingcolile] kwinethiwekhi efana nalezo ezithintekayo ezifundweni zokusebenzisa izidakamizwa-futhi zihlinzeke ukwesekwa kokugqugquzela izintshisekelo zokulutha umlutha ezisekelwe ekuphenduleni okungezansi emibonweni yezocansi ku- [ porn addicts]. Lokhu kutholwa kubhekisela ekubonweni kwethu kwamuva ukuthi amavidiyo acacile ngokocansi ahlotshaniswa nomsebenzi omkhulu kwinethiwekhi ye-neural efana neyayibona kwizifundo eziphathelene nezidakamizwa-reactivity. Isifiso esikhulu noma ukufuna kunokuba ukuthanda sasihlotshaniswa nokusebenza kule nethiwekhi ye-neural. Lezi zifundo ndawonye zinikeza ukusekelwa kwenkolelo yokugqugquzela ukukhwabanisa okugxila ekuphenduleni okungahambi kahle kwezocansi kwi-CSB.

11) Ukulutha kocansi lwe-Cyber ​​kubasebenzisi besifazane abesilisa nabesilisa abangena ocansini bezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-intanethi kungachazwa ngokucabangela ukucabangela (Laier et al., 2014) 
[ukufisa / ukukhuthaza okukhulu] - Ingcaphuno:

Sihlolisise abasebenzisi bezithombe zocansi abangama-51 besifazane nabangu-51 besifazane abangasebenzisi i-Internet (NIPU). Sisebenzisa imibuzo, sihlolisise ukuqina komlutha we-cybersex ngokujwayelekile, kanye nokuthambekela kokuzijabulisa ngokocansi, indlela yokuziphatha ebucayi ejwayelekile, kanye nobukhali bezimpawu zengqondo. Ngokwengeziwe, iparadigm yokulinga, kufaka phakathi isilinganiso sokuvusa esizimele sezithombe zocansi eziyi-100, kanye nezinkomba zokulangazelela, kwenziwa. Imiphumela ikhombise ukuthi i-IPU ilinganise izithombe zocansi njengezivusa kakhulu futhi zabika ukulangazelela okukhulu ngenxa yesethulo sezithombe zocansi uma kuqhathaniswa ne-NIPU.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukulangazelela, ukulinganiswa kocansi kwezithombe, ukuzwela ekuzijabuliseni ngokocansi, ukuziphatha okuyinkinga kwezocansi, nokuqina kwezimpawu zengqondo kwabikezela ukuthambekela kokubheja kocansi lwe-inthanethi e-IPU. Ukuba ebudlelwaneni, inani labantu oxhumana nabo ngokocansi, ukwaneliseka oxhumana nabo ngokocansi, kanye nokusetshenziswa kwe-inthanethi yocansi esebenzisana nakho bekungahlobene nokulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi. Le miphumela ihambisana naleyo ebikwe kwabesilisa abesilisa nabesilisa ocansini olulodwa ezifundweni ezedlule. Ukuthola okuphathelene nokuqiniswa kokuvuswa kocansi, izindlela zokufunda, kanye nendima yokuphinda ukwazi ukusebenza nokulangazelela ukuthuthukiswa komlutha we-inthanethi ngocansi e-IPU kudinga ukuxoxwa.

12) Ubufakazi Bombuso Nokucatshangelwa Kwezingqinamba Ngezizathu Ezifakazela Ukubhebhetheka Kwesicansini Ngokwe-Cyber ​​Ngomqondo Obukeka Ngokwemicabango (Laier et al., 2014) 
[ukufisa / ukukhuthaza okukhulu] - Ingcaphuno:

Imvelo yesimo esivame ukubizwa ngokuthi ukulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cybersex (CA) kanye nezinqubo zayo zokuthuthukiswa. Umsebenzi wangaphambilini ubonisa ukuthi abanye abantu bangasengozini ku-CA, kuyilapho ukuqinisekiswa okuqinisekisayo nokuqaphela ukuthi kubonakala sengathi kuyindlela esemqoka yokuthuthukiswa kwe-CA. Kulesi sifundo, abesilisa abane-155 abangqingili bobulili babhala izithombe ze-100 ezingcolile futhi babonisa ukwanda kwabo kokuvusa ucansi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuthambekela kwe-CA, ukuzwela ekuzijabuliseni ngokobulili, nokusetshenziswa kabi kobulili ngokujwayelekile kwahlolwa. Imiphumela yocwaningo ibonisa ukuthi kunezici zokungcupheni ku-CA futhi inikeze ubufakazi bendima yokuthokozisa ngokocansi nokubhekana nokusebenza okungafaneleki ekuthuthukiseni i-CA.

13) Ukuvelisa, ukubeka isimo kanye nokukhathazeka ngokwemibono yocansi (Banca et al., 2015) 
[Ukulangazelela / ukukhuthaza okukhulu nokujwayela / ukwehlisa isifiso sokuzilimaza] - Olunye ucwaningo lwe-fMRI lwaseCambridge University. Uma kuqhathaniswa nezilawuli eziluthayo ezingcolile zobulili ezikhetha ukuthanda izinto ezintsha zocansi kanye nezimo ezinesimo ezihambisana nocansi. Kodwa-ke, ubuchopho bezidakamizwa ezingcolile bujwayele ukushesha ezithombeni zobulili. Njengoba ukukhetha okuthandwayo kwakungakaze kube khona ngaphambili, kukholelwa ukuthi ukulutha kabi kocansi kubangela ukufuna okusha emzamweni wokunqoba ukujwayela nokungafuneki.

Ukuziphatha kocansi okuphoqelekile (CSB) kuhlotshaniswa nokuthandwa okwenziwe ubulili, uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawula izithombe, kanye nokukhetha okujwayelekile okubhekiswe emibonweni yezocansi nezomnotho uma kuqhathaniswa namavolontiya anempilo. Abantu abakwa-CSB nabo babenomkhuba omkhulu wokuzibophezela ngokuphindaphindiwe kwezithombe zocansi ngokuhambisana nezindleko zemali ngezinga lokujwayele ukuhambisana nokukhethwa okuthuthukisiwe kobuciko bezocansi. Indlela yokuziphatha ekubhekaneni nobulili i-dissociable kusukela ekuthandweni kwezenzo ezihlotshaniswayo yayihlotshaniswa nokukhathazeka kokuqala kwezithombe zocansi. Lolu cwaningo lubonisa ukuthi abantu be-CSB banezintandokazi ezingasetshenziselwa ukuthuthukiswa kocansi okungenzeka zihlanganiswe ngokujwayela okukhulu kakhulu nokuhambisana nokuthuthukiswa okwenziwe ngezifiso ukuze kubuyekezwe.

Ingcaphuno kusukela ku-press release ehlobene:

Bathola ukuthi uma izidakamizwa zobulili zibuka isithombe esifanayo socansi ngokuphindaphindiwe, uma kuqhathaniswa namavolontiya anempilo abhekana nokwehla okukhulu komsebenzi esifundeni sobuchopho owaziwa ngokuthi i-rorsal anterior cingulate cortex, eyaziwa ukuthi ihileleke ekulindeni imivuzo nokuphendula izenzakalo ezintsha. Lokhu kuhambisana 'nokujwayela', lapho umlutha uthola khona ukuvuselela okufanayo okuncane kakhulu - isibonelo, isiphuzo sekhofi singathola i-caffeine 'buzz' esitokisini sawo sokuqala, kodwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi baphuza kakhulu ikhofi, amancane buzz iba.

Lokhu kusebenza okufanayo kwendabuko kwenzeka emadodeni enempilo aboniswa ngokuphindaphindiwe ividiyo efanayo ye-porn. Kodwa uma bebuka ividiyo entsha, izinga lesithakazelo nokuvusa libuyela ezingeni langempela. Lokhu kusho ukuthi, ukuvimbela ukujwayela, umlutha wezocansi uzodinga ukufundwa njalo kwezithombe ezintsha. Ngamanye amazwi, ukujwayela kungase kuqhubekele ukucinga izithombe zeveli.

"Izinto esizifunayo zisebenza ngokukhethekile emlandweni wezithombe ezingcolile zobulili," kusho uDkt. Voon. "Akucaci ukuthi yini ebangela ukubheja ngokocansi endaweni yokuqala futhi kungenzeka ukuthi abanye abantu bajwayele ukubheja ngokweqile kunabanye, kodwa ukubonakala okungapheli kwezithombe zocansi ezitholakala kuyi-intanethi kusiza ukondla umlutha wabo, okwenze kube ngaphezulu futhi kunzima kakhulu ukubaleka. "

14) Izindinganiso ze-Neural zesifiso socansi kubantu ngabanye abanezinkinga zokuziphatha ezingcolile (i-Hypersexual behavior)Seok & Sohn, 2015) 
[ukwenziwa kabusha / ukuzwela okukhulu kanye namasekhethi angasebenzi kahle] - Lolu cwaningo lwaseKorea lwe-fMRI luphindaphinda ezinye izifundo zobuchopho kubasebenzisi be-porn. Njengezifundo zeCambridge University ithole amaphethini wokwenza kusebenze ebuchosheni abayimilutha yezocansi, okukhombisa amaphethini ezidakamizwa. Ngokuhambisana nezifundo ezimbalwa zaseJalimane ithole izinguquko ku-prefrontal cortex ehambelana nezinguquko ezibonwe ezidakamizweni zezidakamizwa. Okusha ukuthi okutholakele kufane namaphethini wokwenza kusebenze i-prefrontal cortex abonwe ezidakamizweni zezidakamizwa: Ukuqaphela okukhulu -ukusebenza kabusha ezithombeni zocansi kepha kuvimbele izimpendulo kwezinye izinto ezivame ukwenzeka. Ingcaphuno:

Ukutadisha kwethu kuhloswe ukuphenya ama-neural correlates wesifiso socansi nokufanekisana kwemifanekiso ehambisana nemicimbi ehlobene nemicimbi (fMRI) ephathelene nomcimbi. Abantu abangamashumi amabili nantathu abane-PHB kanye ne-22 izilawuli ezinempilo ezifanelwe ubudala ngenkathi bebheka ngokungathí sina imibono yezocansi nokungaxhunyiwe. Izinga lezifundo zezocansi zihlolwe ekuphenduleni isisombululo ngasinye socansi. Ngokuphathelene nezilawuli, abantu abane-PHB bahlangabezana nesifiso socansi esivamile futhi esithuthukisiwe ngenkathi behlaselwa kwisicoco socansi. Ukusebenza okukhulu kwatholakala ku-nucleus ye-caudate, i-lobe ephansi, i-torsmus, ne-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex eqenjini le-PHB kuneqembu elilawulayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amaphethini e-hemodynamic ezindaweni eziqanjwe kuzo ahluke phakathi kwamaqembu. Ngokuhambisana nokufundwa kocwaningo lwe-brain imaging of substance and behavior addiction, abantu abanezici zokuziphatha ze-PHB kanye nesifiso esithuthukisiwe kuboniswe ukusebenza okwenziwe ngokuguquguqukayo ezindaweni eziphambili ze-correx nasezindaweni ezingaphansi kwe-subcortical

15) Ukuguquguquka kwezinto ezitholakala esikhathini esizayo ngezithombe zocansi ezitholakala kubasebenzisi bezinkinga kanye nezinkambiso ezingavumelani nalokho "ukuphuza utshwala"Prause et al., 2015) 
[ukujwayela] - Ucwaningo lwesibili lwe-EEG kusuka Ithimba likaNicole Prause. Lolu cwaningo luqhathanisa nezihloko ze-2013 ezivela Steele et al., 2013 kuya eqenjini lokulawula langempela (okwamanje libhekene nezinkinga ezifanayo zendlela yokwenza okukhulunywe ngayo ngenhla). Imiphumela: Ukuqhathaniswa nezilawuli "abantu ababhekana nezinkinga ezilawula ukubukwa kwabo kwezingcolile" babe nezimpendulo eziphansi zobuchopho ekuvezeni okwesikhashana kwezithombe ze-porno ye-vanilla. I umlobi ohola uthi le miphumela "i-debunk umlutha wezocansi." Yimuphi usosayensi osemthethweni ongasho ukuthi isifundo sabo esisodwa esisodwa senzeke insimu yokutadisha kahle?

Eqinisweni, okutholakele Prause et al. I-2015 ihambisane ngokuphelele I-Kühn & Gallinat (2014)okuthole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-porn ngaphezulu okuhlobene nokusebenza komcibisholo okungapheli ekuphenduleni izithombe ze-porn ye-vanilla. Prause et al. okutholakele nakho kuhambelana Banca et al. 2015 okuyi- #13 kulolu hlu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, esinye isifundo se-EEG ithole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kocansi okukhulu kwabesifazane kuhambisana nokusebenza okuncane kobuchopho ku-porn. Ukufundwa okuphansi kwe-EEG kusho ukuthi izifundo azinaki kangako izithombe. Ngokumane nje, abasebenzisi bezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ababevame ukungazithandi izithombe ze-vanilla porn. Babenesithukuthezi (bejwayele noma bengenasizungu). Bona lokhu I-YBOP enkulu ihlaziya. Amaphepha ayisikhombisa abuyekezwe ngontanga avumelana ukuthi lolu cwaningo lwathola empeleni ukuxoshwa / ukujwayele kubasebenzisi be-porn abavamile (okuhambisana nokulutha): 1234567.

16) I-HPA I-Axis Dysregulation Emadodeni Nge-Disorder Sex Disorder (I-Chatzittofis, 2015) 
[Impendulo yengcindezi engasebenzi kahle] - Ucwaningo olunemilutha yobulili besilisa engama-67 nezilawuli ezihambelana nobudala ezingama-39. I-axis ye-Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) ingumdlali ophakathi ekuphenduleni kwengcindezi. Ukulutha guqula izijikelezo zokucindezeleka kwengqondo okuholela e-axis ehlulekayo ye-HPA. Lolu cwaningo olumayelana nezidakamizwa zocansi (abesilisa ocansini) lathola izimpendulo zokucindezeleka eziguquguqukayo ezibonisa ukutholakala kwezidakamizwa ezidakamizwa. Izingcaphuno ezivela ekukhululweni kwezindaba:

Ucwaningo luhilela amadoda e-67 ngengxabano e-hypersexual kanye nokulawulwa okuhambisana kahle kwe-39. Ababambiqhaza baxilongwa ngokucophelela ngenxa yokuphazamiseka kwe-hypersexual nanoma yikuphi ukungaboni kahle ngokucindezeleka noma ukuhlukunyezwa kwengane. Abacwaningi babanikeze umthamo ophansi we-dexamethasone kusihlwa ngaphambi kokuhlolwa ukuvimbela ukucindezeleka kwabo ngokomzimba, bese ekuseni balinganisa amazinga ama-hormone okucindezeleka i-cortisol ne-ACTH. Bathola ukuthi iziguli ezine-hypersexual disorder zazinamazinga aphezulu ama-hormone anjalo kunama-controls enempilo, umehluko owasala ngisho nangemva kokulawula ukucindezeleka okubambisana nokuhlukunyezwa kwengane.

U-Professor Jokinen uthi: "Umthetho wokucindezeleka u-Aberrant uye waqaphela ngaphambili iziguli ezicindezelekile nezokuzibulala. "Eminyakeni yamuva, kugxile ekubhekiseni ukuthi ukuhlukunyezwa kwengane kungabangela ukuhlukunyezwa kwezinhlelo zokucindezeleka komzimba ngezinye izindlela okuthiwa yi-epigenetic, ngamanye amazwi ukuthi izindawo zabo ezingokwengqondo zingathonya kanjani izakhi zofuzo ezilawula lezi zinhlelo." Ngokusho abacwaningi, imiphumela iphakamisa ukuthi uhlelo olufanayo lwe-neurobiological olubandakanyeka kwenye uhlobo lokuhlukunyezwa lungasebenza kubantu abane-hypersexual disorder.

17) Ukulawulwa kwe-Prefrontal nokulutha kwe-intanethi: imodeli yemfundiso nokubukeza okutholakala kwe-neuropsychological and neuroimaging (I-Brand et al., 2015)
[amasekhethi angasebenzi kahle angaphambili / umsebenzi wokuphatha ompofu kanye nokuzwela] - Isicashunwa:

Ngokuhambisana nalokhu, imiphumela evela ekusebenzeni kwe-neuroimaging kanye nezinye izifundo ze-neuropsychological ikhombisa ukuthi ukucubungula-ukwenza kabusha, ukuthanda, nokwenza izinqumo kuyimiqondo ebalulekile yokuqonda ukulutha kwe-Intanethi. Okutholakele ekwehlisweni kolawulo oluphezulu kuyahambisana nokunye okuluthayo kokuziphatha, njengokugembula kwe-pathological. Baphinde bagcizelele ukuhlukaniswa kwalesi simo njengokulutha, ngoba kukhona nokufana okuningana nokutholakele ekuthembekeni kwento. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imiphumela yocwaningo lwamanje ifana nokutholakala ocwaningweni lokuxhomeka kwezinto futhi kugcizelela ama-analogies phakathi kokulutha kwe-inthanethi ngocansi lwe-inthanethi nokuxhomeka kwezidakamizwa noma ezinye izidakamizwa zokuziphatha.

18) Izihlobo ezingenangqondo ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi: Ukulungiswa kwe-Test Effective Association kanye nezithombe zobulili ezingcolile (Snagkowski et al., 2015) 
[ukufisa / ukukhuthaza okukhulu] - Ingcaphuno:

Ucwaningo lwamuva lubonisa ukufana phakathi kokulutha kwe-inthanethi ngocansi lwe-inthanethi nokuxhomeka kwezidakamizwa futhi kuphikisana nokuhlukanisa ukulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi njengokulutha kokuziphatha. Ekuthembekeni kwezidakamizwa, izinhlangano ezifakiwe ziyaziwa ukuthi zidlala indima ebalulekile, futhi izinhlangano ezinjalo azifundwanga ngokulutha kwe-inthanethi ngocansi, kuze kube manje. Kulolu cwaningo lokuhlola, abahlanganyeli besilisa abesilisa nabesilisa abangu-128 baqedile i-Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) eguqulwe ngezithombe zocansi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuziphatha okunenkinga ngokocansi, ukuzwela ekujabuliseni ngokocansi, ukuthambekela ekubhekaneni nokulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi, nokulangazelela okuzimele ngenxa yokubuka izithombe zobulili ezingcolile kwahlolwa.

Imiphumela ikhombisa ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kokuzihlanganisa okucacile kwezithombe zocansi ezinemizwa emihle nokuthambekela kokulutha kwe-cybersex, indlela yokuziphatha eyinkinga yobulili, ukuzwela ekubhekeni ucansi kanye nokunxanela okufakwayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukucubungula okuhlolisisa ukucubungula kwembula ukuthi abantu ababike izifiso eziphezulu zokukhombisa futhi babonisa ukuzihlanganisa okuhle kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile nemizwa emihle, ikakhulukazi bathambekele ekuluzweni kwe-cybersex. Okutholakele kuphakamisa iqhaza elingaba khona lokuzihlanganisa okuhle nezithombe zocansi ekuthuthukiseni nasekulondolozeni umlutha we-cybersex. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imiphumela yocwaningo lwamanje iqhathaniswa nokutholakele ocwaningweni lokuxhomekeka kwezidakamizwa futhi igcizelela i-analogies phakathi komlutha we-cybersex nokuxhomekeka kwezinto noma okunye ukuluthwa kokuziphatha.

19) Izimpawu zokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-inthanethi zingaxhunyaniswa kokubili okusondelayo nokugwema isenzo sezithombe zobulili ezingcolile: imiphumela esampula ye-analog yabasebenzisi abasebenzisa i-cyber njalo (Snagkowski, et al., 2015) 
[ukufisa / ukukhuthaza okukhulu] - Ingcaphuno:

Ezinye izindlela zibhekisela ekufananeni nokuxhomekeka kwezidakamizwa okuyizinto zokuzama ukugwema / ukugwema izindlela ezibalulekile. Abacwaningi abaningana baye baphikisa ukuthi ngaphakathi kwesinqumo esithinta izidakamizwa, abantu bangase bakhombise ukuthambekela kokuya noma ukugwema isenzo esithinta izidakamizwa. Esifundweni samanje abakwa-123 abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa abesilisa nabesifazane baqedile indlela yokuVimbela-Ukugwema (AAT; I-Rinck no-Becker, i-2007) iguquliwe ngezithombe zobulili ezingcolile. Ngesikhathi ababambiqhaza be-AAT bekufanele baqhubekele inhlamba yezithombe zobulili ezingcolile noma badonsele kubo ngenjabulo. Ukuzwela ukukhathazeka ngokocansi, ukuziphatha okubi ngokobulili, nokuthambekela ekubhekaneni nokubheja ngocansi kwe-inthanethi kuhlolwe ngemibuzo.

Imiphumela yabonisa ukuthi abantu abanokuthambekela ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi bavame ukungena noma ukugwema inhlamba yezithombe zocansi. Ukwengeza, ukuhlaziya okulinganisiwe kokuhlaziya kwembulwe ukuthi abantu abanezifiso eziphakeme zocansi kanye nokuziphatha okubi kobulili ababonisa ukuthambekela okuphezulu / ukugwema, babike izimpawu eziphakeme zokulutha kwe-inthanethi ngocansi. I-Analogous to dependence properties, imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi kokubili ukuthambekela kokuzigwema nokugwema kungadlala indima ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusebenzisana nokuzwela ekuzijabuliseni ngokobulili nokuziphatha okubi kobulili kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekukhulekeleni kwezikhalazo ezizithobayo ekuphileni kwansuku zonke ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwe-inthanethi nge-inthanethi. Okutholakele kuhlinzeka ubufakazi obuningi bokuthi kufana nokufana kokulutha kocansi lwe-inthanethi nokuxhomeka kwemithwalo. Ukufana okunjalo kungahle kubuyele ekuqhutshweni kwe-neural efanayo kwe-cybersex- kanye nezici ezihlobene nezidakamizwa.

[ukufisa / ukugqugquzela okukhulu nokulawulwa kwabampofu] - Ingcaphuno:

Abanye abantu basebenzisa okuqukethwe koxhumene ne-inthanethi, okufana nezindaba zobulili ezingcolile, ngendlela yokulutha, okuholela emiphumeleni emibi kakhulu empilweni yangasese noma emsebenzini. Enye indlela eholela emiphumeleni engalungile inganciphisa ukulawula okuphezulu kokuqondisa nokuziphatha okungase kudingekile ukuqaphela ukushintshwa komgomo phakathi kokusebenzisa i-inthanethi nokunye imisebenzi kanye nezibopho zokuphila. Ukuze sibhekane nalesi sici, siphenya abahlanganyeli besilisa be-104 abanesiphakamiso esiphezulu se-paradigm ngamasethi amabili: Isethi esisodwa sasinezithombe zabantu, enye isethi yayinezithombe zobulili ezingcolile. Kokubili ubeka izithombe kufanele zihlukaniswe ngokwezinqubo ezithile. Umgomo ocacile kwakuwukuba usebenze kuwo wonke umsebenzi wokuhlukanisa ngezilinganiso ezilinganayo, ngokushintsha phakathi kwamasethingi nemisebenzi yokuhlelwa ngendlela elinganiselayo.

Sithole ukuthi ukusebenza okulinganiselwe okuncane kule paradigm eningi kakhulu kuhlotshaniswa nokuthambekela okuphezulu ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi. Abantu abanalo mkhuba ngokuvamile basebenzisa ngokweqile noma banganaki ukusebenzela izithombe ezingcolile. Imiphumela ibonisa ukuthi ukulawulwa kokulawula okunciphisisiwe ekusebenzeni kwe-multitasking, lapho kubhekene nezinto eziphathekayo zobulili ezingcolile, kungaholela ekuziphatheni okungasebenzi kahle kanye nemiphumela emibi ephumela ekulweni kwe-inthanethi nge-cyber. Kodwa-ke, abantu abanokuthambekela ekubhebhethekiseni i-inthanethi kubonakala sengathi banesifiso sokugwema noma ukubhekana nalokhu okushiwo yizocansi, njengoba kuboniswe ezinhlobonhlobo zokugqugquzela umlutha.

21) Ukuhweba Kamuva Imivuzo Yenjabulo Yamanje: Izithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Ukuchitha Nokunciphisa Ukuthengiswa (Negash et al., 2015) 
[ukuphathwa kwabampofu: ukuhlolwa kwe-causation] - Izingcaphuno:

Isifundo 1: Ababambiqhaza bagcwalise iphepha lemibuzo lezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kanye nomsebenzi wokubambezeleka wokubambezeleka ku-Time 1 baphinde babuye futhi emasontweni amane kamuva. Ababambiqhaza ababika ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ezisezingeni eliphakeme bakhombisile inani eliphakeme lokunciphisa izaphulelo ku-Time 2, elawula isephulelo sokuqala sokulibaziseka. Isifundo 2: Ababambiqhaza abebengavumeli ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile babonise isephulelo sokubambezeleka esiphansi kunababambiqhaza ababengadli ukudla abakuthandayo.

Izithombe zobulili ezingcolile zakwa-intanethi ngumvuzo wobulili owenza ukulibaziseka ukuphumula ngokwehlukile kunezinye izinzuzo zemvelo, ngisho nalapho ukusetshenziswa kungacindezeli noma kumlutha. Lolu cwaningo lwenza umnikelo obalulekile, kubonisa ukuthi umphumela uhamba ngaphezu kokuvusa okwesikhashana.

Ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kunganikeza ukuzithokozisa okusheshayo ngokocansi kodwa kungaba nemiphumela ehamba phambili futhi ithinte ezinye izizinda zokuphila komuntu, ikakhulukazi ubudlelwane.

Ukutholwa kusikisela ukuthi izithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-Inthanethi ngumvuzo wobulili obangela ukuphuza ukuphumula ngokwehlukile kunezinye izinzuzo zemvelo. Ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukuphatha izithombe zobulili ezingcolile njengesimo esiyingqayizivele ekufundiseni, ukuzikhandla, nokufunda izidakamizwa nokusebenzisa lokhu ngokuqondene nokwelashwa komuntu ngamunye kanye nokwabelana.

22) Ukuxhaswa ngokocansi nokubhekana nokungasebenzi ngokuqondile Ukunquma ukubhebhetheka ngokobulili ngocansi phakathi kwabantu abesilisa nabesilisa ocansini (Laier et al., 2015) 
[ukufisa / ukukhuthaza okukhulu] - Ingcaphuno:

Okutholakele kamuva nje kukhombise ukuhlangana phakathi kobuchopho beCyberSex Addiction (CA) nezinkomba zokuthi kukhulu ngocansi, nokuthi ukubhekana nezimo zocansi kuqondise ubudlelwano phakathi kokuthokozela ucansi nezimpawu ze-CA. Inhloso yalolu cwaningo bekuwukuhlola lokhu kulungiswa kusampula yabesilisa abathandana nobungqingili. Amaphepha emibuzo ahlole izimpawu ze-CA, ukuzwela ukubonwa ngocansi, ukusetshenziswa kwethonya lezithombe ezingcolile, izinkomba zokuziphatha kwezocansi okunezinkinga, izimpawu zomqondo, kanye nokuziphatha kwezocansi empilweni yangempela naku-inthanethi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, abahlanganyeli babuke amavidiyo wezithombe zocansi futhi bakhombisa ukuvusa inkanuko yabo ngaphambi nangemva kwevidiyo.

Imiphumela ikhombise ukuhlangana okuqinile phakathi kwezimpawu ze-CA nezinkomba zokuvusa inkanuko ngokobulili, ukubhekana nokuziphatha kocansi, nezimpawu zengqondo. I-CA ayihlotshaniswa nokuziphatha okungaxhunyiwe ku-inthanethi nokusebenzisa isikhathi se-cybersex kweviki. Ukulingiswa okuphathelene nezocansi kuhlukanise ingxenye yobudlelwano phakathi kokuchuma kocansi ne-CA. Imiphumela iqhathaniswa naleyo ebikiwe kwabesilisa nabesifazane abesilisa nabesifazane ezifundweni ezedlule futhi kuxoxwa ngayo ngemuva kwesisekelo sokucabanga kwe-CA, okuqokomisa iqhaza lokuqiniswa okuhle nokubi ngenxa yokusebenzisa i-cybersex.

23) Indima Ye-Neuroinflammation ku-Pathophysiology Ye-Hypersexual Disorder (Jokinen et al., 2016) 
[Impendulo yengcindezi engasebenzi kahle ne-neuro-inflammation] - Lolu cwaningo lubike amazinga aphezulu okujikeleza iTumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) emilalweni yezocansi uma iqhathaniswa nezilawuli ezinempilo. Amazinga aphakeme we-TNF (umaka wokuvuvukala) nawo atholakele kubahlukumezi bezidakamizwa nasezilwaneni ezidla izidakamizwa (utshwala, i-heroin, i-meth). Kwakukhona ukuhlangana okuqinile phakathi kwamazinga e-TNF nezikali zokulinganisa ezilinganisa ubungqingili.

24) Ukuziphatha Ngokweqile Ngokwecansi: I-Prefrontal NoLimbic Volume kanye Nokusebenzisana (Schmidt et al., 2016) 
[amasekethe angasebenzi kahle angaphambili nokuzwela] - Lesi isifundo se-fMRI. Uma kuqhathaniswa nezilawuli ezinempilo zezihloko ze-CSB (imilutha yezocansi) zikhuphule ivolumu ye-amygdala yesobunxele futhi yehlisa ukuxhumana okusebenzayo phakathi kwe-amygdala ne-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC. Ukunciphisa ukuxhumana okusebenzayo phakathi kwe-amygdala kanye ne-prefrontal cortex ehambelana nokulutha kwezidakamizwa. Kucatshangwa ukuthi ukuxhumana okumpofu kunciphisa ukulawula kwe-cortex yangaphambili phezu kwethonya lomsebenzisi lokuzibandakanya ekuziphatheni okuluthayo.

Lolu cwaningo luphakamisa ukuthi ubuthi bezidakamizwa bungaholela odabeni olungenampunga futhi ngaleyo ndlela banciphise ivolumu ye-amygdala eziluthweni lwezidakamizwa. I-amygdala isebenza ngokungaguquguquki ngesikhathi sokubukwa kocansi, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sokuvezwa kokuqala kokuya ocansini. Mhlawumbe ubuciko obuvamile bezocansi nokufuna nokufuna kuholela kumthelela oyingqayizivele ku-amygdala kubasebenzisi be-porn abacindezelayo. Ngenye indlela, iminyaka yokulutha kabi kocansi nemiphumela emibi emibi icindezela kakhulu - futhi cUkucindezeleka okungokweqile komphakathi kuhlobene nokukhula kwe-amygdala volume. Study #16 ngenhla wathola ukuthi "izilonda zocansi" zinesimiso sokucindezeleka ngokweqile. Kungenzeka yini ukucindezeleka okungapheli okuhlobene nokulutha kobulili / ngokocansi, kanye nezici ezenza ubulili obuhlukile, kuholele kumthamo omkhulu wama-amygdala? Ingcaphuno:

Okutholakele kwethu kwamanje kugqamisa amavolumu aphakanyisiwe esifundeni esineqhwa ekukhuthazeni nasekuxhumaneni okuphansi kwesimo samanethiwekhi wokulawula asezingeni eliphansi phezulu. Ukuphazanyiswa kwamanethiwekhi anjalo kungachaza amaphethini wokuziphatha okungahambisani nomvuzo omkhulu wezemvelo noma ukwenziwa kabusha kokuthuthuka kuzindlela zokukhuthaza. Yize okutholakele kwethu kwe-volumetric kuqhathaniswa nalokho okuku-SUD, lokhu okutholakele kungakhombisa umehluko njengokusebenza kwemiphumela ye-neurotoxic yokuvezwa okungapheli kwezidakamizwa. Ubufakazi obuvelayo bukhombisa ukweqeka okungaba khona ngenqubo yokulutha umlutha ikakhulukazi esekela imibono yokukhuthaza yokukhuthaza.

Sikhombisile ukuthi okwenziwayo kule nethiwekhi ye-salience kuyathuthukiswa kulandela ukuvezwa kwezinkomba ezibucayi noma ezincanyelwayo zocansi [Brand et al., 2016; USeok noSohn, 2015; Voon et al., 2014] kanye nokunyanyiswa okuthuthukisiwe [uMechelmans et al., 2014] futhi ufisa okucacile ekuthandweni kocansi kodwa hhayi ngesifiso sobulili esijwayelekile [Brand et al., 2016; Voon et al., 2014]. Ukunakwa okuthuthukisiwe ekukhulumeni kobulili kuhloswe ngokuhlotshaniswa nokuthandwa kwamagama okuziphatha ngokobulili kanjalo kuqinisekisa ubuhlobo phakathi kokubekwa kwesimo socansi nokukhathazeka [Banca et al., 2016].

Lokhu okutholakele kwemisebenzi ethuthukisiwe ehlobene nezimo zocansi ezihlukile kunalezo zomphumela (noma isikhuthazo esingenamibandela) lapho ukujwayela okuthuthukisiwe, okungenzeka kuhambisana nomqondo wokubekezelelana, kukhulisa ukuthanda izintandokazi zobulili ezintsha [Banca et al., 2016]. Ngokubonke lokhu okutholakele kusiza ekuqedeni i-neurobiology engezansi ye-CSB eholele ekuqondeni okukhulu kwesifo kanye nokuhlonza izimpawu zokwelapha ezingenzeka.

25) Umsebenzi we-Ventral Striatum Uma Ukubuka Izithombe Ezizikhethela Zobulili Ezingxenyeni Kuhlotshaniswa Nezibonakaliso Zomlutha Wezithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Ze-Inthanethi (I-Brand et al., 2016) 
[ukwenziwa kabusha / ukuqaphela okukhulu] - Isifundo se-fMRI saseJalimane. Ukuthola i- # 1: Umsebenzi wesikhungo somvuzo (i-ventral striatum) wawuphakeme kakhulu ezithombeni ezikhethiwe zocansi. Ukuthola i- # 2: I-Ventral striatum reactivity ehambisana nesilinganiso sokulutha ngokocansi kwe-inthanethi. Kokubili okutholakele kukhombisa ukuzwela futhi kuhambisane ne imodeli yokulutha umlutha. Abalobi basho ukuthi "I-Neural isisekelo sokulutha kobulili ezingcolile kuyi-Internet kufaniswa nezinye izidakamizwa." Ingcaphuno:

Uhlobo olulodwa lomlutha we-intanethi lusetshenziswa ngokweqile ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile, okubhekwa nangokuthi ukubheja kocansi noma i-intanethi ye-Internet. Ucwaningo lwe-Neuroimaging lwathola umsebenzi we-ventral striatum lapho ababambiqhaza bebukele isenzo esicacile sobulili uma kuqhathaniswa nezinto ezingacacile zocansi / ezithandwayo. Manje sithemba ukuthi i-ventral striatum kufanele iphendule izithombe ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile eziqhathaniswa nezithombe ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile futhi ukuthi umsebenzi we-ventral striatum kulokhu kuqhathaniswa kufanele uhlobaniswe nezibonakaliso ezizithobayo zokulutha kobulili ezingcolile kuyi-intanethi. Sifunde abathintekayo abesilisa abane-19 abesilisa abanesithombe sezithombe ezihlanganisa izinto eziphathekayo ezikhethwayo nezingazikhetheli.

Izithombe ezisuka kwisigaba esikhethiwe zilinganisiwe njengokuvusa okunye, okungajabulisi kahle, futhi okuseduze nakakhulu. Impendulo ye-Ventral striatum yayinamandla esimweni esithandwayo kuqhathaniswa nezithombe ezingakhethi. Umsebenzi we-Ventral striatum kule mpikiswano wawuhlotshaniswa nezimpawu ezizimele ze-Inthanethi zobulili ezingcolile zobulili. Ukuqina kwesifo esibucayi kwakuyiyona kuphela eyabonakalayo ekuhlaziyeni kokunciphisa ngokuphendula okuzenzekelayo njengezimo ezixhomeke ekuxhaseni nasezibonisweni ezibonakalayo zokulahla izithombe zobulili ezingcolile zobulili, ukuzijabulisa ngokobulili, ukuziphatha okuphathelene nokucansi, ukucindezeleka, ukuzwela komuntu siqu, nokuziphatha kocansi ezinsukwini zokugcina njengezibikezelo . Imiphumela isekela indima ye-ventral striatum ekucubunguleni umvuzo wokulindela nokwaneliseka okuxhunywe ekuphathweni kwezinto ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile. Izindlela zokulindela ukulindela ekutheni i-ventral striatum ingabangela incazelo ye-neural yokuthi kungani abantu abanezintandokazi ezithile nezengqondo zobulili bengengozi yokulahlekelwa ukulawula kwabo ukusetshenziswa kwama-pornography e-intanethi.

26) Isimo esithintekayo se-Appetitive ne-Neural Ukuxhumana ezifundweni ezinezinkinga zokuziphatha ngokobulili (Compulsive Behavior behavior)Klucken et al., 2016) 
[ukwenziwa kabusha / ukukhuthazwa okukhulu kanye namasekhethi angasebenzi kahle] - Lolu cwaningo lwaseJalimane lwe-FMRI luphindaphinde imiphumela emibili emikhulu evela I-Voon et al., I-2014 futhi I-Kuhn & Gallinat 2014. Okutholakele Okuyinhloko: I-correlates ye-neural yesimo sokunciphisa nokuxhumeka kwe-neural ishintshiwe eqenjini le-CSB. Ngokusho kwabaphenyi, ushintsho lokuqala - ukuvuselelwa kokuqina kwe-amygdala - kungahle kukhombise isimo esisetshenzisiwe ("izintambo" ezinkulu kunkomba zangaphambili ezingathathi hlangothi ezibikezela izithombe ezingcolile).

Ushintsho lwesibili - lwehlise ukuxhumana phakathi kwe-ventral striatum ne-prefrontal cortex - kungaba uphawu lokungakwazi ukulawula imizwa. Abaphenyi bathi, "Lezi [zinguquko] zihambisana nezinye izifundo eziphenya ama-neural correlates ezinkinga zokulutha kanye nokushoda kokulawula umfutho." Okutholakele kokuvuselelwa okukhulu kwe-amygdalar kuzinkomba (ukuzwela) futhi wehlisa uxhumano phakathi kwesikhungo somvuzo kanye ne-prefrontal cortex (ubuzenzisi) yizinguquko ezimbili zobuchopho obubonakalayo ekudakiseni izidakamizwa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-3 yabasebenzisi be-porn-compulsive i-20 bahlushwa "yi-orgasmic-erection disorder." Ingcaphuno:

Ngokuvamile, ukugcizelela okwenziwe ukwanda komsebenzi we-amygdala kanye nokunciphisa okwenziwe nge-ventral-PFC yokuxhuma kuvumela ukuthi ucabangele nge-etiology nokuphathwa kwe-CSB. Izihloko ze-CSB zibonakala zijwayele ukuhlela ubudlelwane phakathi kwamacebo angathathi hlangothi kanye nezindlela zokuziphatha eziphathelene nobulili. Ngakho-ke, lezi zihloko cishe zingase zihlangane nezici ezenza ukuziphatha okusondelayo. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi lokhu kuholela ku-CSB noma kungumphumela we-CSB kumele uphendulwe ngokucwaninga kusasa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinqubo zokulawulwa kwezimo eziphuthemayo, ezibonakala ekunciphiseni ukuqhutshwa kwe-prefrontal ye-ventral, zingaphinde zisekele ukugcinwa kokuziphatha okunenkinga.

27) Ukuphoqeleka Kusetshenziselwa Ukusebenzisa Ngokungafanele Ukusetshenziswa Kwemithi Yezidakamizwa Nezingekho Emthethweni (Banca et al., 2016) 
[ukucubungula okukhulu / ukusizakala okukhulu, izimpendulo ezinesimo esithuthukisiwe] - Lolu cwaningo lwe-fMRI lwaseCambridge University luqhathanisa izici zokuphoqeleka kwabaphuza utshwala, abadla ngokweqile, abayimilutha yegeyimu yevidiyo kanye nemilutha yezocansi (CSB). Izingcaphuno:

Ngokungafani nezinye izinkinga, i-CSB uma kuqhathaniswa ne-HV ibonise ukuthengwa okusheshayo emiphumeleni yokuvuza kanye nokukhuthazela okukhulu esimweni somvuzo kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kwenzekani. Izihloko ze-CSB azibonanga noma yikuphi ukukhubazeka okuqondile ekusetshenzisweni kokuguquguquka noma kokuguqula. Lokhu okutholakele kuguqulwa ngezinzuzo zethu zangaphambilini zokuzikhethela okuthuthukisiwe okwenziwe ngemiphumela yocansi noma yemali, jikelele ekhombisa ukuzwela okuthuthukisiwe ukuvuza (I-Banca et al., 2016). Ucwaningo oluqhubekayo olusebenzisa imivuzo ebonakalayo luboniswa.

28) Ukufuna Ukuziqhenya Ngokuziqhenya Ngokwezithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Nokuzihlanganisa Ukubikezela Ukuthambekela Ngokweqile Kwesimo Sezinxushunxushu Ngesimo Sokusetshenziswa Kwesicansi Sezinsizakalo ZaseCyber ​​(Snagkowski et al., 2016) 
[ukucubungula okukhulu / ukuqwashisa okukhulu, izimpendulo ezinesimo esithuthukisiwe] - Lolu cwaningo oluyingqayizivele lubeke izihloko kumumo owawungathathi hlangothi ngaphambili, owawubikezela ukuvela kwesithombe sezithombe zocansi. Izingcaphuno:

Akukho ukuvumelana mayelana nenqubo yokuxilongwa yokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-inthanethi. Ezinye zilandela ukulandelana okufana nokuxhomekeka kwezidakamizwa, lapho ukufunda okuhlanganisayo kuyindlela ebalulekile. Kulolu cwaningo, amadoda e-86 angqingili abesilisa abesilisa aphelile i-Standard Pavlovian kuya ku-Instrumental Transfer Task eguquliwe ngezithombe zobulili ezingcolile ukuze aphenye ukufunda okuhlanganyelwe kokulutha kwe-inthanethi nge-cyber. Ukwengeza, ukufuna ukuzithoba ngenxa yokubukela izithombe zobulili ezingcolile kanye nokuthambekela ekubhekaneni nocansi lwe-inthanethi kuhlolwe. Imiphumela yabonisa umphumela wokufisa ukuzithoba ekuthambekeni kokubhebhetheka ngocansi kwe-inthanethi, okulinganiswe ukufunda okuhlangene.

Sekukonke, lokhu okutholakele kukhomba iqhaza elibalulekile lokufunda ngokuzibandakanya ekuthuthukiseni umlutha we-cybersex, ngenkathi kunikeza ubufakazi obengeziwe bokufana phakathi kokuxhomekeka kwezidakamizwa nokuluthwa kwe-cybersex. Ngokufingqa, imiphumela yocwaningo lwamanje iphakamisa ukuthi ukufunda okuhambisana nakho kungadlala indima ebalulekile maqondana nentuthuko yokulutha kwe-cybersex. Ukuthola kwethu kuhlinzeka obunye ubufakazi bokufana phakathi komlutha we-cybersex nokuxhomekeka kwezidakamizwa njengoba kuboniswe ithonya lokufisa lokuzibandakanya nokufunda okuhambisana nalo.

29) Imodi iyashintsha ngemva kokubukela izithombe zobulili ezingcolile kuyi-Internet zixhunyaniswa nezimpawu ze-Inthanethi-izithombe zobulili ezingcolile-ukubhekwa kwezifo (I-Laier noMkhiqizo,2016) 
[ukuthanda / ukukhuthaza okukhulu, ukuthanda kancane] - Izingcaphuno:

Imiphumela eyinhloko yocwaningo yukuthi ukuthambekela ekubhekaneni ne-Internet Pornography Disorder (IPD) kwakuhlotshaniswa kabi nokuzizwa kahle, ukuvuka, nokuzola kanye nokuqiniseka ngokucindezeleka okubonakalayo empilweni yansuku zonke kanye nesisusa sokusebenzisa izithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-intanethi ngokufuna ukujabulisa nokugwema imizwa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuthambekela kwe-IPD kwakuhlobene kabi nemizwa ngaphambi nangemva kokubuka izithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-Intanethi kanye nokwanda kwangempela kwemizwa emihle nezolile.

Ubudlelwano phakathi kokuthambekela kwe-IPD nenjabulo efuna ngenxa yokusebenzisa i-Intanethi-ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kuhlolwe ngokuhlolwa kokweneliseka kwe-orgasm. Ngokuvamile, imiphumela yocwaningo ihambisana nombono wokuthi i-IPD ixhunyaniswe nesisusa sokuthola ukwaneliseka ngokocansi nokugwema noma ukubhekana nemizwa ephikisayo kanye nokucabanga ukuthi ukuguquka kwemizwelo kulandela ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kuxhunyaniswe ne-IPD (Cooper et al., 1999 futhi I-Laier neBrith, i-2014).

30) Ukuziphatha ngokobulili kubantu abasha: Izinhlangano kuzo zonke iziguquko zomtholampilo, zokuziphatha, kanye neurocognitive (2016) 
[ukusebenza kwabampofu] - Abantu abaneZinkinga Zokuziphatha Ngokobulili Okunenkinga (PSB) bakhombise ukusilela okuningana kwe-neuro-cognitive. Lokhu okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi umpofu ukusebenza okuphezulu (ukungalungi) okuyinto a isici esiyinhloko sobuchopho esivela ezilutha izidakamizwa. Izingcaphuno ezimbalwa:

Omunye umphumela ophawulekayo kulokhu kuhlaziywa ukuthi i-PSB ibonisa izinhlangano ezibalulekile eziningana zezici ezingemtholampilo, okubandakanya ukuzethemba okuphansi, ukunciphisa izinga lokuphila, i-BMI ephakanyisiwe, kanye namazinga aphezulu okunciphisa izinkinga eziningana ...

... kungenzeka ukuthi izici zemitholampilo ezikhonjisiwe eqenjini le-PSB empeleni ziwumphumela wokuguquguquka kwezemfundo ephakeme okuholela kokubili kwe-PSB nezinye izici zomtholampilo. Esinye isici esingaba khona sokugcwalisa le ndima kungaba yizinkinga ezingenasici ezitholakala eqenjini le-PSB, ikakhulukazi lezo eziphathelene nokukhumbula, ukusebenza komfutho / ukulawula umfutho nokuthatha izinqumo. Kusukela kulesi sakhiwo, kungenzeka ukulandelela izinkinga ezibonakalayo kwi-PSB nakwezinye izici zomtholampilo, njengokungaboni kahle ngokomzwelo, ekulahlekeni okungokwengqondo ...

Uma izinkinga zokuzicabangela ezivezwe kulokhu kuhlaziywa empeleni ziyisici esiyinhloko se-PSB, lokhu kungase kube nemiphumela ephawulekayo emitholampilo.

[Impendulo yengcindezi engasebenzi kahle, ushintsho lwe-epigenetic] - Lokhu ukulandelwa kwe- #16 ngenhla okuyinto eyatholakala ukuthi izilonda zocansi zinezinkinga zokucindezeleka ezingasebenzi - ishintsho esikhulu se-neuro-endocrine esibangelwa ukulutha. Ucwaningo lwamanje luthole izinguquko ze-epigenetic kuma-genes eziphambili ekuphenduleni komuntu nokucindezeleka. Ngezinguquko ze-epigenetic, ukulandelana kwe-DNA akushintshiwe (njengoba kwenzeka ngomsindo). Esikhundleni salokho, isakhi sithegiwe futhi inkulumo yayo ivuliwe noma iphansi (ividiyo emfushane echaza i-epigenetics). Izinguquko ze-epigenetic ezibikiwe kulolu cwaningo zenzeke ekusebenzeni kwe-CRF yegeni. CRF i-neurotransmitter nehomoni okushayela ukuziphatha okuluthayo ezifana nezifiso, futhi a umdlali omkhulu ezimweni eziningi zokuhoxiswa ezitholakalayo ngokuphathelene nazo izinto futhi izidakamizwa zokuziphatha, kuhlanganise umlutha wezocansi.

[cue reactivity / sensitization, desensitization] - Lolu cwaningo luphinda okutholakele lolu cwaningo lwe-2014 Cambridge University, okuqhathanisa ukukhathazeka kwezilingo ezingcolile zobulili ezingcolile kuya ekulawuleni okunempilo. Nakhu okusha: Ucwaningo lwaluhlanganisa "iminyaka yokusebenza ngokobulili" ne-1) izikolo zokuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi kanye no-2) imiphumela yomsebenzi wokuqaphela umxhwele. Phakathi kwalabo ababeka phambili ekubhekaneni nocansi, iminyaka embalwa yokuhlangenwe nakho ngokobulili yayihlotshaniswa nokukhathazeka okukhulu (incazelo yokukhathalela).

Ukucindezela okuphezulu kakhulu kwezocansi + iminyaka embalwa yesipiliyoni sobulili = izimpawu ezinkulu zokulutha (ukubhekela okukhulu, noma ukuphazamiseka). Kepha ukubhekela ukunaka kwehla kakhulu kubasebenzisi abaphoqayo, futhi kuyanyamalala kunani eliphakeme kakhulu leminyaka lokuhlangenwe nakho kocansi. Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi lo mphumela ungakhombisa ukuthi iminyaka eminingi "yezenzo zocansi eziphoqayo" iholela ekujwayeleni okukhulu noma ekunciphiseni okujwayelekile kwempendulo yenjabulo (ukungafuneki). Ingcaphuno yesiphetho:

Enye incazelo engenzeka yale miphumela ukuthi njengoba umuntu ekuphoqelela umuntu ezocansini ekuziphatheni okuphoqelela ngokwengeziwe, ithempulethi elivusa amadlingozi liqala ukwakheka [36-38] nokuthi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukuziphatha ngokwedlulele kuyadingeka ukuze lelizinga elifanayo lomvuselelo lifezekiswe. Kuphikwa futhi ukuthi njengomuntu ozibandakanya ekuziphatheni okuphoqelela ngokwengeziwe, ama-neuropathways afanelwa amandla okuvuselelwa kocansi okuvamile noma izithombe bese abantu baphendukela ekuvuseleleni okukhulu ngokwedlulele ukuthola inkanuko efiswayo. Lokhu kuya ngokuhambisana nomsebenzi okhombisa ukuthi abesilisa 'abaphilile' bahlala ekukhuthazeni ngokuhamba kwesikhathi nokuthi le ndawo ibonakala ngokuncipha kokuphendula okungathandeki nokuthokozisayo [39].

Lokhu kuphakamisa ukuthi abahlanganyeli abasebenza kakhulu kwezocansi baye 'bakhubazeka' noma banganakwa kakhulu ngamagama 'ajwayelekile' ahlobene nocansi asetshenziswe ocwaningweni lwamanje futhi njengoba ukubonisa okunjalo kunciphisa ukunaka kokunaka, ngenkathi labo abanokuqina okuningana nabanolwazi oluncane besakhombisa ukuphazamiseka ngoba isisusa sibonisa ukuqonda okuqondwe ngaphezulu.

33) Ukusebenza Okusebenzayo Kwamadoda Okuzicabangela Ngokwecansi Nokungaxilisi Ngaphambi Kokubuka Nokubukela Ividiyo Eyingozi (I-Messina et al., 2017) 
[ukusebenza okuphezulu kompofu, ukufisa / ukukhuthaza kakhulu] - Ukuvezwa kocansi kuthinte ukusebenza okuphezulu emadodeni ane "ziphoqelelo zokuziphatha ngocansi," kepha hhayi izilawuli ezinempilo. Ukusebenza okuphezulu okumpofu lapho kuvezwa izindlela ezihlobene nokulutha kuyimpawu yokuphazamiseka kwemithi (okukhombisa kokubili zashintsha izifunda ze-prefrontal futhi ukuzwela). Okucaphuno:

Lokhu kutholakala kubonisa ukuguquguquka okungcono kwengqondo emva kokugqugquzela ngokobulili ngokulawulwa uma kuqhathaniswa nabathintekayo ngokocansi. Lezi zesekelo zisekela umqondo wokuthi amadoda abesilisa ocansini akufanele asebenzise ngokunenzuzo umphumela wokufunda ongakuthola ohlangothini, okungabangela ukuguqulwa kokuziphatha okungcono. Lokhu kungase kuqondwe njengokuntuleka komphumela wokufunda yiqembu eliphoqeleka ngokocansi lapho bevuselelwa ngokocansi, okufana nalokho okwenzekayo emjikelezweni wokulutha ngokocansi, okuqala ngezinga elikhulayo lokuqashelwa ngokocansi, okulandelwa ukuqaliswa kobulili izikripthi bese i-orgasm, ngokuvamile ihilela ukuchayeka ezimweni eziyingozi.

34) Ingabe Izithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile Zingaba Umlutha? Ucwaningo lwe-FMRI lwabantu abafuna ukwelashwa kwezithombe ezingcolile zobulili eziyinkimbinkimbi Sebenzisa (I-Gola et al., 2017) 
[ukucubungula okukhulu / ukusizakala okukhulu, izimpendulo ezinesimo esithuthukisiwe] - Ucwaningo lwe-fMRI olubandakanya umbandela oyingqayizivele we-cue-reactivity lapho ubujamo obabungathathi hlangothi babikezela ukubonakala kwezithombe zocansi. Izingcaphuno:

Amadoda asebenzisa nokusebenzisa izithombe ezingcolile nge-porn (PPU) ahluke ekuphenduleni kobuchopho ukuze aqaphele ukubikezela izithombe ezithandayo, kodwa hhayi ekuphenduleni izithombe ezibucayi ngokwabo, ezihambisana isisusa somqondo wokudakwa. Lokhu kusetshenzwa kobuchopho kwakuhambisana nokugqugquzela kokuziphatha okukhulayo ukubuka izithombe ezithandanayo (ukufuna 'okuphakeme' okuphakeme). Ukubuyiselwa kwe-Ventral okubulalayo kwezingcaphuno zokubikezela izithombe ezithinta izithombe kwakuhlobene kakhulu nobukhulu be-PPU, inani lezithombe ezingcolile zobulili ngesonto kanye nenani lamakhompiyutha. Okutholakele kwethu kusikisela ukuthi njengezinto ezisetshenziswa ngokweqile kanye nokugembula kuphazamisa izindlela ze-neural and behavioral ezihlobene nokucubungula ukucubungula kwamaphuzu ezihlobene ngokubaluleka kwizici ezifanele emitholampilo ye-PPU. Lokhu kutholakala kusikisela ukuthi i-PPU ingase imele ukulutha kokuziphatha futhi ukuthi ukungenelela okuwusizo ekubhekiseni ukulutha kwezidakamizwa kanye nokusebenzisa izidakamizwa kufanele kuhlolwe ukujwayela nokusetshenziswa ekusizeni amadoda ane-PPU.

35) Izinyathelo Eziqaphelayo Nezingezona Zenhliziyo Yokuzizwa: Ingabe Ziyakhathaza Ngokuvame Ukusetshenziswa Kwezingcolile? (Kunaharan et al., 2017) 
[ukujwayela noma ukungafuni ukuzwa] - Ucwaningo luhlolisise izimpendulo zabasebenzisi be-porn (ukufundwa kwe-EEG & Impendulo ye-Startle) ezithombeni ezahlukahlukene ezikhuthaza imizwelo - kufaka phakathi i-erotica. Ucwaningo luthole ukwehluka okuningana kwemizwa phakathi kwabasebenzisi be-porn abasebenzisa imvamisa ephansi kanye nabasebenzisi be-porn abasebenzisa imvamisa ephezulu. Izingcaphuno:

Okutholakisayo kusikisela ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile kubonakala sengathi kunethonya ekuphenduleni okungenakuqaphela kobuchopho ekucindezelweni kwemizwelo engaboniswa yi-self-report ecacile.

I-4.1. Ukulinganisa okucacile: Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi iqembu eliphezulu lokusebenzisa i-porn lilinganise izithombe ezibukeka sengathi zingathandeki ngaphezu kweqembu eliphakathi. Abalobi basikisela ukuthi lokhu kungenzeka ngenxa yemvelo efana ne "soft-core" yezithombe "ezibukeka" eziqukethwe ku-database ye-IAPS ngaphandle kokunikeza izinga lokuvuselela okungase lifune, njengoba liboniswe nguHarper noHodgins [58] ukuthi ngokubuka njalo kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile, abantu abaningi bavame ukukhuphukela ekubukeni ukwaziswa okuningana ngokwengeziwe ukuze balondoloze izinga elifanayo lokuvuselela umzimba.

Isigaba semizwa "emnandi" sibone izilinganiso ze-valence zawo wonke amaqembu amathathu zifana kakhulu neqembu elisebenzisa kakhulu izilinganiso zezithombe njengezingajabulisi ngokwesilinganiso kunamanye amaqembu. Lokhu kungenzeka futhi kube ngenxa yezithombe “ezimnandi” ezethulwe zingavuseleli ngokwanele abantu abaseqenjini elisetshenziswa kakhulu. Ucwaningo lukhombise ngokungaguquki ukwehla komzimba ekusetshenzisweni kokuqukethwe ngenxa yemiphumela yendawo yokuhlala kubantu abavame ukuthola okuqukethe ezocansi [378]. Kuyizingxabano zabalobi ukuthi lo mphumela ungaba nemiphumela yemiphumela ebonwe.

I-4.3. I-Startle Reflex Modulation (SRM): Isihlobo esiphezulu se-amplitude startle effect esiboniswe emaqenjini asetshenziswayo aphansi nesiphakathi angacaciswa nalabo abaseqembu ngokuzigwema ukugwema ukusetshenziswa kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile, njengoba bengase bakuthole kungabi mnandi kakhulu. Ngaphandle kwalokho, imiphumela etholakalayo ingase ibe ngenxa yomphumela wokuhlala, lapho abantu kula maqembu bebukela izithombe ezingcolile ezingaphezu kwalokho abakusho ngokucacile-mhlawumbe ngenxa yezizathu zokwenza amahloni phakathi kwabanye, njengoba imiphumela yokujwayela iboniswe ukwandisa amehlo e-lookle aphikisana nezimpendulo [4142].

36) Ukuvezwa kwe-Stimuli yezocansi kudonsa ukukhuphuka okuphezulu okuholela ekubandakanyekeni okuqhubekayo ekukhulekeleni kwe-Cyber ​​phakathi kwamadoda (I-Cheng & Chiou, 2017) 
[ukusebenza okumpofu, ukusebenza ngamandla okukhulu - isivivinyo se-causation] - Ezifundweni ezimbili ukuvezwa ezintweni ezibukwayo zocansi kuholele ku: 1) isaphulelo esikhulu esibambezelekile (ukungakwazi ukubambezela ukuzithokozisa), 2) ukuthambekela okukhulu kokuzibandakanya kobugebengu be-cyber, 3) ukuthambekela okukhulu ukuthenga izimpahla zomgunyathi nokugenca i-akhawunti ye-Facebook yomuntu. Ukuhlanganiswa ndawonye lokhu kubonisa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kocansi kwandisa ukungabi namandla futhi kunganciphisa imisebenzi ethile yokuphatha (ukuzithiba, ukwahlulela, imiphumela yokubona kusengaphambili, ukulawula umfutho). Ingcaphuno:

Abantu bavame ukubhekana nesimo socansi ngesikhathi sokusebenzisa i-intanethi. Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ukuthi ukugqugquzela ukugqugquzela isisusa socansi kungabangela ukungabi nandaba okukhulu kwamadoda, njengoba kuboniswa ekukhishweni kwesikhathi esiningi (okungukuthi, ukuthambekela kokukhetha okuncane, okuzuzayo okusheshayo, okuzayo).

Ekuphetheni, imiphumela yamanje ibonisa ukuhlangana phakathi kocansi (isibonelo, ukuvezwa kwezithombe zabesifazane abashakazi noma izambatho zokuvusa ucansi) kanye nokubandakanyeka kwabantu ekuqhutshweni kwe-cyber. Okutholakele kwethu kusikisela ukuthi ukungathandeki komuntu nokuzithiba, njengoba kubonakaliswe ukukhipha isaphulelo sesikhathi, kungase kuvele ukwehluleka ekubhekaneni nesimo sobulili obukhona. Amadoda angase azuze ekuqapheliseni ukuthi ukuvezwa kwesenzo socansi kuhlotshaniswa nokukhetha nokuziphatha kwabo okulandelayo. Okutholakele kwethu kusikisela ukuthi ukuhlangabezana nesenzo socansi kungabangela amadoda emgwaqweni we-cyber delinquency

Imiphumela yamanje iphakamisa ukuthi ukutholakala okuphezulu kwezinto eziphathelene nobulili ku-intanethi kungase kuhlotshaniswe eduze nokuziphatha kwe-cyber-delinquent kwamadoda kunalokho okucatshangwa ngaphambilini.

37) Izibikezelo ze-(Okuyinkimbinkimbi) Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Inthanethi Izinto ezicacile ngokocansi: Umsebenzi Wokuziphatha Ngezocansi kanye Nendlela Ecacile Indlela Yokuziphatha Ngokwezinto Ezingcolile (ngocansi)Stark et al., 2017) 
[ukukhomba kabusha okukhulu / ukukhuthaza / ukufisa] - Izingcaphuno:

Ucwaningo lwamanje lucwaninga ukuthi isisusa sobulili nokuziphatha okubonakalayo ekutheni izinto eziphathelene nobulili zikhona yini izibikezelo zokusetshenziswa kwe-SEM enenkinga kanye nesikhathi esisodwa esichithwa ukubuka i-SEM. Esivivinyo sokuziphatha, sasebenzise umsebenzi wokuVimbela ukuVimbela (AAT) wokulinganisa ukuthambekela okuphelele kokuthinta izinto zocansi. Ukubambisana okuhle phakathi kokuthambekela okungahambi kahle kwe-SEM kanye nesikhathi esisodwa esichithwa ekubukeni i-SEM kungachazwa ngemiphumela yokuqaphela: Ukuthambekela okunamandla okungaqondakali kungachazwa njengengqayizivele yokubhekelela i-SEM. Isihloko esinalo ukukhathazeka singase sikhangwe kakhulu ezindabeni zobulili kwi-inthanethi okuholela ekutheni isikhathi esiphezulu sichithwa kumasayithi we-SEM.

38) Ukuqapha Ukulutha Kwezithombe Zobulili Ezingcolile okusekelwe kwiNqubo yeComputerational Neurophysiological (2018) 

Umbhalo ocacile:

Kuleli phepha, indlela yokusebenzisa isignali yengqondo evela endaweni yangaphambili ithunyelwe ngokusebenzisa i-EEG ihlongozwa ukuthola ukuthi umhlanganyeli angase abe nomlutha wezocansi noma ngenye indlela. Isebenza njengendlela ehambisanayo yokubhalwa kwemibuzo ejwayelekile yengqondo. Imiphumela yokuhlola ibonisa ukuthi abahlanganyeli abanomlutha babe nemisebenzi yamagagasi aphansi e-region esifundeni sobuchopho uma kuqhathaniswa nabahlanganyeli abangewona umlutha. Kungabonwa ngokusebenzisa i-spectra yamandla esetshenziswa nge-Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Ithimba le-theta libonisa nokuthi kukhona ukungafani phakathi komlutha nomlutha. Noma kunjalo, umehluko awusobala njengo-band band.

39) Ukunciphisa grey nokuguqulwa kwesimo sokuphumula-state ku-gyrus esesikhundleni esiphakeme phakathi kwabantu abanezimo eziyinkimbinkimbi zokuxhumene nocansi (2018) 
[ukusilela kwendaba empunga ku-cortex yesikhashana, ukuxhumana okumpofu kokusebenza phakathi kwe-temporal cortex kanye ne-precuneus & caudate] - Ucwaningo lwe-fMRI ngokuqhathanisa ngokucophelela imilutha yezocansi ("inkinga yokuziphatha kwe-hypersexual") kwizifundo zokulawula okunempilo. Uma kuqhathaniswa nezilawuli eziluthayo zocansi: 1) kunciphise izinto ezimpunga kuma-lobes wesikhashana (izifunda ezihambisana nokuvimbela izinkanuko zocansi); I-2) inciphise i-precuneus ekuxhumaneni okusebenzayo kwe-cortex yesikhashana (kungakhombisa ukungajwayelekile emandleni okudlulisa ukunakwa); I-3) inciphise i-caudate ekuxhumaneni okusebenzayo kwe-cortex yesikhashana (kungavimbela ukulawulwa okuphezulu kokuya phansi kwezinkanuko). Izingcaphuno:

Lokhu kutholakala kubonisa ukuthi ukulahlekelwa kwesakhiwo ngaphakathi kwe-gyrus yesikhashana kanye nokuhlanganiswa okusebenzayo okusebenza phakathi kwe-gyrus yesikhashana kanye nezindawo ezithile (okungukuthi, i-precuneus kanye ne-caudate) kungabangela ukuphazamiseka ekuvimbelweni kwe-sexic emphakathini kubantu abane-PHB. Ngakho-ke, le miphumela iphakamisa ukuthi izinguquko ezakhiweni kanye nokuxhumana okusebenzayo ku-gyrus yesikhashana kungenzeka kube yizici ezithile ze-PHB futhi zingase zibe yiziphakamiso ze-biomarker zokuxilongwa kwe-PHB.

Ukugqama okubalulekile grey ku-tonsil kwesokudla ye-cerebellar nokuhlanganiswa okwandisiwe kwe-tereillar cerebellar kwesokunxele ne-STG kwesokunxele nakho kwabonwa .... Ngakho-ke, kungenzeka ukuthi umthamo wegrey ukwanda nokusebenza okusebenzayo ku-cerebellum kuhlotshaniswa nokuziphatha okucindezelayo kubantu abane-PHB.

Ngokufingqa, i-VBM yamanje kanye nokuhlola okusebenzayo kubonisa ukulahlekelwa kwezinto ezimpunga nokuhlanganiswa okusebenzayo ku-gyrus yesikhashana phakathi kwabantu abane-PHB. Okubaluleke nakakhulu, isakhiwo esinciphile kanye nokuxhumana okusebenzayo akuhambisani kakhulu nobukhulu be-PHB. Lezi zitholakele zinikeza ulwazi olusha emisebenzini engezansi ye-neural ye-PHB.

40) Izindlela zokubuka i-intanethi-izithombe zobulili ezingcolile-sebenzisa isifo: Ukuhlukahluka kwamadoda nabesifazane ngokuphathelene nokukhathazeka kokuziqhenya kwezithombe zobulili ezingcolile (2018) 
[ukwenziwa kabusha / ukuqaphela okukhulu, izifiso ezithuthukisiwe]. Izingcaphuno

Abalobi abaningana babheka i-Intanethi-izithombe zobulili ezingcolile-sebenzisa inkinga (IPD) njengesifo sokulutha. Enye yezindlela ezifundwe ngokujulile ekuphazamisweni kokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa nokungasetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa kuyindlela yokunaka ebhekiswe ezinkambisweni ezihlobene nokulutha. Ukuchema okubhekwayo kuchazwa njengezinqubo zokuqonda zomuntu ngamunye ezithinteka yizimpawu ezihlobene nokulutha okubangelwa ubukhali besikhuthazo esibekiwe uqobo. Kucatshangelwa kumodeli ye-I-PACE ukuthi kubantu abathambekele ekuthuthukiseni izimpawu ze-IPD ukuqonda okucacile kanye nokuqanjwa kabusha kokusebenza kanye nokulangazelela kuvela bese kukhula ngaphakathi kwenqubo yokulutha. Ukuphenya iqhaza lokunaka ekuthuthukiseni i-IPD, siphenye isampula labahlanganyeli besilisa nabesifazane abangu-174.

Ukuchema kokunakwa kwakulinganiswa ne-Visual Probe Task, lapho ababambiqhaza kwakudingeka baphendule ngemicibisholo evela ngemuva kwezithombe zocansi noma ezingathathi hlangothi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ababambiqhaza kwakudingeka bakhombise ukuvuswa kwabo ngokocansi okubangelwa izithombe zocansi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuthambekela kwe-IPD kukalwe kusetshenziswa i-Short-Internetsex Addiction Test. Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo ikhombise ubudlelwano phakathi kokukhathalela ukunaka kanye nobukhulu besifo se-IPD ngokwengxenye okulamulelwe yizinkomba zokuphinda kusebenze kabusha nokulangazelela. Ngenkathi abesilisa nabesifazane behluka kakhulu ezikhathini zokuphendula ngenxa yezithombe zocansi, ukuhlaziywa okulinganisiwe kokuhlehliswa kuveze ukuthi ukubandlulula okunakwa kwenzeka ngaphandle kocansi kumongo wezimpawu ze-IPD. Imiphumela isekela ukucatshangelwa kwemodeli yemodeli ye-I-PACE maqondana nesibindi sokukhuthaza izinkomba ezihlobene nokulutha futhi iyahambisana nezifundo ezikhuluma ngokusebenza kabusha kwe-cue kanye nokulangazelela ukuphazamiseka kokusebenzisa izidakamizwa.

Zonke lezi zifundo zezinzwa zathola:

  1. Ubuchopho obuhlobene nobudlova obukhulu be-3 bushintsha: ukuzwelaukungafuneki, Futhi ubuzenzisi.
  2. Ukusetshenziswa kocansi okuningi okuhambisana ne-grey less in circuit circuit (dorsal striatum).
  3. Ukusetshenziswa kocansi okwandisiwe okuhambisana nokusebenza okuncane kokuvuselelwa kwesifunda lapho ubuka kafushane izithombe zocansi.
  4. Ukusetshenziswa kocansi okungaphezulu kuhambisana nokuphazanyiswa kwezixhumanisi ze-neural phakathi kwesifunda somvuzo kanye ne-prefrontal cortex.
  5. Izilingo zinezikhundla ezinkulu ezenzweni zobulili, kodwa umsebenzi ongaphansi kobuchopho obhekene nesimo esivamile (ukuhambisana nokulutha kwezidakamizwa).
  6. Ukusetshenziswa kobulili / ukuchayeka kocansi okuhlobene nokuphushulwa okukhulu okubambezeleka (ukungakwazi ukulibazisa ukuzithokozisa). Lokhu yisibonakaliso sokusebenza okuphephile okuphezulu.
  7. I-60% yezihloko eziluthayo ezingcolile zocansi ocwaningweni oluthile zathola i-ED noma i-libido ephansi nabalingani, kepha hhayi nge-porn: bonke bathi ukusetshenziswa kwe-porn kwe-inthanethi kubangele i-ED / low libido yabo.
  8. Ukuhlaziya okuthuthukisiwe kufana nabasebenzisi bezidakamizwa. Ibonisa ukuzwela (umkhiqizo we DeltaFosb).
  9. Ukufuna okukhulu nokulangazelela i-porn, kepha hhayi ukuthanda kakhulu. Lokhu kuhambisana nemodeli eyamukelwe yokulutha - ukukhuthaza ukukhuthaza.
  10. Izidakamizwa ezingcolile zinokuthandwa kakhulu kobuciko bocansi kodwa ubuchopho babo bujwayele ukujwayela izithombe zocansi. Ayikho ngaphambili.
  11. Abasha abasebenzisi bezithombe ezibucayi baningi kakhulu ekusebenziseni ukukhishwa kwesikhungo esikhwameni sokuvuza.
  12. Ukufundwa kwe-EEG ephakeme (P300) lapho abasebenzisi be-porn bezitholakala kuma-porn cues (okwenzekayo kwezinye izidakamizwa).
  13. Isifiso esingaphansi kocansi nomuntu ohambisana nokuqamba okukhulu-ukubuyisela emuva kwezithombe ezingcolile.
  14. Ukusebenzisa izithombe ezingcolile okuhlobene kakhulu ne-LPP ephansi ngamaplitude uma ubuka kancane izithombe zezithombe zobulili: kubonisa ukujwayela noma ukungafuni ukuhlaziya.
  15. Ama-axis ahlukumezayo e-HPA futhi aguqulwe ama-circuits okucindezeleka kwengqondo, okwenzeka emilonyeni yezidakamizwa (kanye nomthamo omkhulu we-amygdala, ohlobene nokucindezeleka okungapheli komphakathi).
  16. Izinguquko ze-Epigenetic ezakhiweni zofuzo ezisemqoka ekuphenduleni ukucindezeleka komuntu futhi ezihlobene ngokuhambisana nokulutha.
  17. Amazinga aphezulu we-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) - eyenzeka futhi ekusebenziseni kabi izidakamizwa nokulutha.
  18. Iphutha lezinkinga ze-cortex ezimpunga zesikhashana; uxhumano olubi phakathi kwezinkampani zangasese nezinye izifunda eziningana
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