Memory

Imemori nokufunda

“Inhloso yenkumbulo akusikho ukuthi sikhumbule okwedlule, kepha ukusivumela silindele ikusasa. Imemori iyithuluzi lokubikezela. ”

- U-Alain Berthoz

Nazi izinkulumo ezimbili eziwusizo ze-TED emandleni okufunda.

Owokuqala nguprofesa waseStanford UCarol Dweck emandleni okukholelwa ukuthi singathuthukisa. Iphuzu lakhe ukuthi "umzamo nobunzima" bokuzama kusho ukuthi ama-neurons ethu enza ukuxhumana okusha njengoba sifunda futhi sithuthuka. Lokhu kuhlanganiswa namandla okusiza ukukwakha izinto ezimpunga / ne-neuron ku-prefrontal cortex.

Owesibili ukhona Angela Lee Duckworth futhi ucabange indima ye "grit" ekudaleni impumelelo.

Isimo se-Pavlovian

Ukufunda ushintsho ekuziphatheni okuvela kokuhlangenwe nakho. Kusisiza ukuba sivumelane nemvelo yethu. Isimo se-Classical siyindlela yokufunda kwesinye isikhathi ebizwa ngokuthi "Isimo sePavlovian". Ukubhangiswa okuphindaphindiwe kwemisindo yensimbi nokudla kwabangela inja kaPavlov ukuba iconse amathe lapho kuzwakala insimbi yodwa. Ezinye izibonelo zesimo sePavlovian bekungaba ukufunda ukukhathazeka:

I-1) Lapho ubona izibani zamaphoyisa ezikhanyayo esibukweni sakho esingemuva; noma
2) Uma uzwa imisindo ehhovisi lomama wamazinyo.

Umsebenzisi wezithombe ezingcolile angase afake ukuvuswa kwakhe kocansi ukuze akhiphe izikrini, abuke izenzo ezithile, noma uchofoze kusuka kuvidiyo kuya kuvidiyo.

Lesi sigaba sisekelwe ezintweni ezivela "Ubuchopho kusuka phezulu kuya phansi"Umthombo ovulekile womthombo owenziwe yi-McGill University eCanada. Kunconywa kakhulu uma ufuna ukufunda kabanzi.

Ukufunda yindlela eyenza sihlale sithola ulwazi olutholakalayo, kusho ama-affective (ngokomzwelo), nokuveza okungathonya ukuziphatha kwethu. Ukufunda kuwumsebenzi oyinhloko wengqondo, lapho lesi sakhi siguqula khona isakhiwo sawo ukuze sibonise kangcono okuhlangenwe nakho esikutholile.

Ukufunda kungalinganiswa nokufaka ikhodi, okuyisinyathelo sokuqala enqubeni yokukhumbula ngekhanda. Umphumela wayo - inkumbulo - ukuphikelela kwemininingwane yomuntu kanye nolwazi olujwayelekile.

Kodwa inkumbulo ayithembekile ngokuphelele. Uma ubona into, amaqembu i-neurons ezingxenyeni ezihlukene zenqubo yakho yobuchopho ulwazi mayelana nokuma kwalo, umbala, iphunga, umsindo, njalonjalo. Ubuchopho bakho bese buhlanganisa ukuxhumana phakathi kwala maqembu ahlukene we-neurons, futhi lobudlelwane bubandakanya umbono wakho wento. Ngokulandelayo, noma nini lapho ufuna ukukhumbula into, kufanele uvuselele lobu buhlobo. Ukucubungula okufanayo ukuthi i-cortex yakho yenza ngale njongo, noma kunjalo, ingashintsha inkumbulo yakho yento.

Futhi, ezinhlelweni zememori yakho yobuchopho, izingcezu zolwazi ezihlukanisiwe zibanjwa ngekhanda kancane kakhulu kunalezo ezihambisana nolwazi olukhona. Ukuhlangana okuningi phakathi kolwazi olusha nezinto osuvele uzazi, uzokufunda kangcono. Isibonelo, uzoba nesikhathi esilula sokukhumbula ukuthi ithambo le-hip lixhunywe ethangeni lethanga, ithambo lethanga lixhunywe ethanjeni lamadolo, uma usunolwazi oluthile oluyisisekelo lwe-anatomy noma ukwazi ingoma.

Izazi zengqondo zithole izinto eziningana ezingathonya indlela imemori esebenza kahle ngayo.

1) Ikhono lokuqapha, ukuqapha, ukulalela nokugxila. Ngokuvamile ukulalela kuyithuluzi elibhala imininingwane enkumbulweni. Ukunakekelwa kwe-rapt yisisekelo se-neuroplasticity. Ukunakwa kokunakwa kunganciphisa kakhulu ukusebenza kwememori. Isikhathi esiningi sesikrini singalimaza inkumbulo yokusebenza futhi senze izimpawu ezilinganisa i-ADHD. Singathuthukisa ikhono lethu lememori ngokwenza umzamo oqotho wokuphinda nokuhlanganisa ulwazi. I-stimuli ekhuthaza ukuqhubeka nokuphila okungenasici, njengokuthi i-eerotica, ayidingi umzamo wokuzikhandla. Kudinga umzamo oqotho wokuqhubeka ukuwubuka ngaphansi kokulawula.

2) Intshisekelo, amandla okugqugquzela, nesidingo noma isidingo. Kulula ukufunda uma isihloko sisibusisa. Ngakho, ukugqugquzela kuyisici esithuthukisa inkumbulo. Abanye abasha abangeke benze kahle kakhulu ezifundweni abaphoqelelwe ukuba bangene esikoleni bavame ukuba nenkumbulo emangalisayo yezibalo mayelana nemidlalo yabo oyithandayo noma amawebhusayithi.

3) Izindinganiso zokucindezeleka (ngokomzwelo) ehlotshaniswa nolwazi ukukhishwa ngekhanda, futhi isimo somuntu nokuqina kwemizwa. Isimo sethu somzwelo lapho kwenzeka umcimbi singaba nomthelela omkhulu enkumbulweni yethu. Ngakho-ke, uma umcimbi ucasula kakhulu noma uvusa inkanuko, sizokwakha inkumbulo yawo ecace bha. Isibonelo, abantu abaningi bayakhumbula ukuthi babekuphi lapho bezwa ngokushona kukaPrincess Diana, noma ngokuhlaselwa kukaSepthemba 11, 2001. Ukucutshungulwa kwemicimbi ethinta imizwa yenkumbulo kubandakanya i-norepinephrine / noradrenaline, i-neurotransmitter ekhishwa ngamanani amakhulu lapho sijabule noma sishubile. Njengoba uVoltaire akubeka, lokho okuthinta inhliziyo kuqoshwe enkumbulweni.

4) Indawo, ukukhanya, imisindo, iphunga… Ngamafuphi, yonke umongo lapho ukubamba ngekhanda kwenziwa khona kanye nolwazi olukhishwe ngekhanda. Ngakho-ke izinhlelo zethu zememori zikhona ngokoqobo. Ngenxa yalokho, lapho sinenkinga yokukhumbula iqiniso elithile, singakwazi ukukuthola ngokukhumbula lapho sikufunde khona noma encwadini noma iwebhusayithi esiyifunde kuyo. Ingabe kwakukhona isithombe kulelo khasi? Ingabe ulwazi olusenhla kwekhasi, noma phansi? Izinto ezinjalo zibizwa ngokuthi "ukukhumbula izinkomba". Futhi ngenxa yokuthi sihlale sikwazi ngekhanda umongo kanye nolwazi esikufundayo, ngokukhumbula lo mongo singakwazi njalo, ngochungechunge lwezinhlangano, sikhumbule ulwazi ngokwalo.

Ukukhohlwa kusenza sikwazi ukulahla ulwazi oluningi esilucubungula nsuku zonke kodwa ukuthi ubuchopho bethu busobala ngeke buswele esikhathini esizayo. Ukulala kusiza ngale nqubo.

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