Inkinga yezocansi Abadala kuphela

Addiction

Ukusetshenziswa okuphoqelekile naphezu kwemiphumela emibi kuyisici sokulutha. Lokho kusho ukuthi noma ngabe ukulutheka kubanga ukulahleka kwemisebenzi, ubudlelwane obonakele, ukumoshakala kwezezimali, sizizwa sicindezelekile futhi singalawuleki, sibeka phambili isimilo noma into yethu yokulutha ngaphezu kwanoma yini enye empilweni yethu.

Incazelo encane yesiqephu yokulutha umlutha ekhishwe yi-American Society of Addiction Medicine yilezi:

Isiyaluyalu yisifo esiyisisekelo, esingapheli somvuzo womqondo, isisusa, inkumbulo kanye nezifunda ezihlobene. Ukungasebenzi kulezi zifunda kuholela ekuboniseni izinto eziphilayo, ezengqondo, ezenhlalakahle nezingokomoya. Lokhu kukhonjiswe kumuntu ngamunye wokuphishekela umvuzo kanye / noma ukusiza ngokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa kanye nezinye izinto zokuziphatha.

Izidakamizwa zibonakala ngokungakwazi ukuyeka, ukukhubazeka ekulawuleni ukuziphatha, ukulangazelela, ukunciphisa ukuqaphela izinkinga ezibalulekile ngokuziphatha komuntu kanye nobuhlobo bomuntu siqu, nokuphendula okungokomsebenzi okungokomsebenzi. Njengazinye izifo ezingelapheki, izidakamizwa ngokuvamile zihilela ukuphindaphindiwe nokuphindaphindiwe. Ngaphandle kokwelashwa noma ukubandakanyeka emisebenzini yokubuyisela, izidakamizwa ziyaqhubeka futhi zingabangela ukukhubazeka noma ukufa kwangaphambi kwesikhathi.

I-American Society of Addiction Medicine nayo ikhiqiza iNcazelo Ede. Lokhu kuxoxa ngomlutha ngokuningiliziwe futhi kungatholakala lapha. Incazelo igcine ukubuyekezwa ku-2011.

Umlutha kungumphumela wenqubo yezinguquko ohlelweni lomvuzo wobuchopho. Uhlelo lokuvuza ebuchosheni bethu lwavela ukusisiza siphile ngokusenza sifune imivuzo noma injabulo, sigweme izinhlungu, nakho konke ngomzamo omncane noma ukusetshenziswa kwamandla. Siyabuthanda ubusha, ikakhulukazi uma singathola ubumnandi noma sigweme izinhlungu ngomzamo omncane. Ukudla, amanzi, ukubopha kanye nezocansi kuyimivuzo eyisisekelo esivele safuna ukuyiphila. Ukugxila kuzo kwakhula lapho lezi zidingo zazimbalwa, ngakho-ke sithola injabulo lapho sizithola. Lokhu kuziphatha okusinda konke kuqhutshwa yi-neurochemical dopamine, ebuye iqinise izindlela ze-neural ezisisiza ukuba sifunde futhi siphindaphinde ukuziphatha. Lapho i-dopamine iphansi, sizwa ukunxenxa kokusishukumisela ukuba siyifune. Ngenkathi isifiso sokufuna umvuzo sivela ku-dopamine, umuzwa wenjabulo noma injabulo ekutholeni umvuzo uvela kumthelela we-neurochemical wama-opioid emvelo ebuchosheni.

Namuhla ezweni lethu eligcwele, sizungezwe izinguqulo 'ezingavamile' zemivuzo yemvelo njengokucutshungulwa, ukudla okungenamsoco wekhalori kanye nezithombe zocansi ze-intanethi. Lokhu kunxusa uthando lobuchopho lwentsha kanye nesifiso senjabulo ngomzamo omncane. Njengoba sisebenzisa okuningi, imikhawulo yethu yemizwa iyakhuphuka futhi sithola ukubekezelelana noma ukungabi namandla okuvuselelwa okuvela emazingeni wangaphambilini okusetshenziswa. Lokhu kuzolungisa isidingo sethu sokuqina ukuze sizizwe sanelisekile, noma okwesikhashana. Izinguquko zesifiso zibe yimfuneko. Ngamanye amagama, siqala 'ukudinga' isimilo ngaphezu kokuthi 'sikuthanda' njengokungazi, izinguquko zobuchopho ezihlobene nokulutha zilawula indlela esiziphatha ngayo futhi silahlekelwe yinkululeko yethu yokuzikhethela.

Eminye imivuzo esetshenzwe kakhulu, engaphansi 'yemvelo' efana noshukela omsulwa, utshwala, i-nicotine, i-cocaine, i-heroin nayo isebenzisa uhlelo lokuvuza. Baduna izindlela ze-dopamine ezihloselwe imivuzo yemvelo. Ngokuya ngomthamo, le mivuzo ingaveza umuzwa ojulile wenjabulo noma wokuthokoza kunalokho okutholwa yimivuzo yemvelo. Lokhu kukhathazeka ngokweqile kungaphonsa uhlelo lwethu lomvuzo lungalingani. Ubuchopho buzonamathela kunoma iyiphi into noma isimilo esisiza ukuqeda ukucindezeleka. Ubuchopho bethu abukaguquki ukuze babhekane nalomthwalo owandayo ohlelweni lwezinzwa.

Izinguquko ezine zobuchopho eziyinhloko zenzeka ngesikhathi senqubo yokulutha.

Okokuqala siba 'yizifiso' zokuzijabulisa okuvamile. Sizizwa sikindiki ngokuzungeza izinjabulo ezijwayelekile zansuku zonke ezazivame ukusijabulisa.

Into eluthayo noma isimilo sisebenza noshintsho olukhulu lwesibili, 'ukuzwela'. Lokhu kusho ukuthi esikhundleni sokujabulela ubumnandi obuvela emithonjeni eminingi, sigxila kakhulu entweni esiyifisayo noma kunoma yini esisikhumbuza ngayo. Sikholwa ukuthi singazizwa sanelisekile futhi sithokoze ngakho kuphela. Sakha ukubekezelelana okusho ukuthi sijwayela izinga eliphakeme lokukhuthaza elisusa ukungakhululeki kokuhoxa kulo.

Ushintsho lwesithathu 'ukungazenzisi' noma ukukhubazeka nokusebenza okuncishisiwe kwama-lobes angaphambili asiza ukuvimbela isimilo futhi asivumele sizwele abanye. Ama-lobes angaphambili amabhuleki abamba isimilo esidinga ukusilawula. Kuyingxenye yobuchopho lapho singazibeka ezicathulweni zabanye ukuzwa umbono wabo. Kusisiza ukuthi sibambisane futhi sizibophezele kwabanye.

Ishintsho sesine ukudala uhlelo lokucindezeleka okudliwayo. Lokhu kusishiya ukucindezeleka nokucindezeleka kalula, okuholela ekuziphatheni okuphambene nokucindezela. Kuyinto ehlukile yokuqina nokuqina kwengqondo.

Imiphumela yokuluthwa ivela ekusetshenzisweni okuphindaphindayo nokuya ngokuqina kakhulu kwento ethile (utshwala, i-nicotine, i-heroin, i-cocaine, i-skunk njll) noma isimilo (ukugembula, izithombe zocansi ze-inthanethi, ukudlala, ukuthenga, ukudla ukudla okungenamsoco) okubangela ushintsho ekwakhiweni kobuchopho nokusebenza . Ubuchopho bawo wonke umuntu buhlukile, abanye abantu badinga ukukhuthazwa kakhulu kunabanye ukuze bathole injabulo noma babe imilutha. Ukugxila njalo nokuphindaphinda kwento ethile noma isimilo kukhombisa ubuchopho ukuthi lo msebenzi ubaluleke kakhulu ekusindeni, noma ngabe kungenjalo. Ubuchopho buyaziqondisa kabusha ukwenza leyo nto noma leyo ndlela yokuziphatha ize kuqala futhi yehlise isithunzi sakho konke okunye empilweni yomsebenzisi. Inciphisa umbono womuntu futhi yehlise ikhwalithi yempilo yabo. Kungabonakala njengehlobo 'lokufunda ngaphezulu' lapho ubuchopho bunamathela kuluphu lwempendulo lokuziphatha okuphindaphindiwe. Siphendula ngokuzenzekelayo, ngaphandle komzamo oqondile, kokuthile okusizungezile. Kungakho sidinga ama-lobes angaphambili aqinile ukuze asisize sicabange ngokucophelela ngezinqumo zethu futhi siphendule ngendlela ezothuthukisa izintshisekelo zethu zesikhathi eside hhayi nje ukunxuswa kwesikhashana.

Endabeni yokulutha izithombe zobulili ezingcolile ze-intanethi, ukubona nje i-laptop, ithebhulethi noma i-smartphone kuhlebela izimpawu kumsebenzisi ukuthi injabulo 'isiseduze'. Ukulindelwa komvuzo noma ukukhululeka ebuhlungwini kuqhuba isimilo. Ukukhuphukela kumasayithi umuntu ngaphambilini athola "okunyanyekayo noma okungahambisani nokunambitheka kwabo kwezocansi" kuvamile futhi kutholwa yingxenye yabasebenzisi. Ukulutha okugcwele emqondweni womtholampilo akudingekile ukudala ushintsho ebuchosheni oluveza imiphumela eyinkinga engqondweni nasemzimbeni njengenkungu yobuchopho, ukudangala, ukuhlala wedwa emphakathini, ukukhula, ukukhathazeka komphakathi, ubunzima be-erectile, ukunakekelwa okuncane emsebenzini nokuntula uzwela kwabanye.

Ngokuvamile ukuxosha noma yikuphi umsebenzi wokukhiqiza i-dopamine kungase kuphoqeleke ngokushintsha lokho okucatshangwa ukuthi ubuchopho bethu bubalulekile noma buyimfuneko yokusinda kwayo. Lezi zingqondo zishintsha futhi zithinta izinqumo zethu nokuziphatha kwethu. Izindaba ezimbi ukuthi ukuthuthukisa umlutha owodwa kungaholela kalula ekubeni umlutha kwezinye izinto noma ukuziphatha. Lokhu kwenzeka uma ubuchopho buzama ukuqhubeka nokugcina izimpawu zokuhoxiswa ngokufuna ukuthokozisa injabulo, noma i-dopamine nama-opioid, ukusuka kwenye indawo. Intsha iyingozi kunazo zonke ekudambiseni.

Izindaba ezinhle ukuthi ngenxa yokuthi ubuchopho buyi-plastic, singafunda ukuyeka ukuqinisa ukuziphatha okulimazayo ngokuqala amasha nokushiya imikhuba endala. Lokhu kunciphisa indlela yobuchopho endala futhi kusiza ukwakha okusha. Akulula ukwenza kodwa ngokusekelwa, kungenziwa. Izinkulungwane zamadoda nabesifazane ziye zalahla ekugqilazweni futhi zajabulela inkululeko kanye nokuqashwa okusha.

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