Ukuthuthukiswa kokuguquguquka kobuchopho

Ukuthuthukiswa kokuguquguquka kobuchopho

Buka le minithi ye-5 ividiyo ukuze uthole ukubuka okusheshayo izingxenye nemikhakha yobuchopho.

Enye yezinhlobonhlobo ezaziwa kakhulu zokuqonda isakhiwo sobuchopho ukuthuthukiswa kokuziphendukela kwemvelo kobuchopho. Lokhu kwenzelwa isazi sezinkanyezi uPaul MacLean futhi waba nethonya elikhulu kuma-1960s. Nokho, phakathi neminyaka kusukela kulokhu, izici ezimbalwa zalesi simodeli kuye kwadingeka zibuyekezwe ngenxa yezifundo zamuva ze-neuroanatomical. Kusasetshenziswa ekuqondeni ukusebenza kobuchopho ngokujwayelekile. Imodeli yasekuqaleni ye-MacLean yahlukanisa ubuchopho obuthathu obuhlukile obonakala ngokulandelana ngesikhathi sokuziphendukela kwemvelo:

I-Brain Reptilian

Lena yingxenye endala yobuchopho. Kwaqala mayelana nezigidi ezingu-400 eminyakeni edlule. Iqukethe izakhi eziyinhloko ezitholakala ebuchosheni bomhlaba obuthakathaka: ubuchopho buba khona kanye ne-cerebellum. Itholakala ejulile ngaphakathi kwekhanda lethu futhi ifanelana phezulu kwenduku yethu yomgogodla. Ilawula imisebenzi yethu eyisisekelo njengokwenhliziyo yethu, ukushisa komzimba, ukucindezelwa kwegazi, ukuphefumula nokulinganisela. Kubuye kusize ukuxhumanisa nezinye 'izinhliziyo' ezimbili ngaphakathi kwekhanda lethu. Ubuchopho obunamahloni buyathembekile kepha buvame ukuba buthakathaka futhi bunzima.

I-Brain Limbic. Kubizwa nangokuthi ubuchopho bamammalian

Ubuchopho bomlenze bulawula uhlelo lomzimba lomzimba. Yathuthuka cishe eminyakeni eyi-250 eminyakeni edlule ngokuziphendukela kwezilwane zokubeletha zokuqala. Kungabhala izinkumbulo zokuziphatha okukhiqiza okuhlangenwe nakho okujabulisayo nokungavumelani, ngakho kubhekene nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi 'imizwelo' kubantu. Lona yingxenye yobuchopho lapho siwela khona futhi singenalo uthando, futhi sibophezele nabanye. Kungumgogodla wesimiso sokuthakazelisa noma uhlelo lokuvuza kubantu. Izidumbu, kuhlanganise nabantu, zidinga ukukhulisa izingane zabo isikhathi esithile ngaphambi kokuba zilungele ukuhamba 'esidlekeni' futhi zizivikele. Lokhu akufani nezingane eziphefumulayo ezivele ziphule iqanda futhi ziqhume.

Ubuchopho bomzimba buyisihlalo sezinkolelo nezindinganiso eziyigugu esizihlakulelayo, ngokuvamile ezingenakuqaphela, ezenza ithonya elinamandla kangaka ekuziphatheni kwethu.

U-Amygdala

I-limbic system iqukethe izingxenye eziyisithupha eziyinhloko - i-thalamus, i-hypothalamus, i-pituitary gland, i-amygdala, i-hippocampus, i-nucleus accumbens ne-VTA. Nakhu abakwenzayo.

The i-thalamus ngu-opharetha webhodibhodi yobuchopho bethu. Noma yiluphi ulwazi lwezinzwa (ngaphandle kwephunga) olungafika emzimbeni wethu luya ku-thalamus yethu yokuqala futhi i-thalamus ithumela ulwazi ezingxenyeni ezifanele zobuchopho bethu ukuze kusetshenziswe.

The ngxenye ubukhulu bebhontshisi yekhofi kodwa kungaba isakhiwo esibaluleke kakhulu ebuchosheni bethu. Kuhilelekile ekulawuleni ukoma; indlala; imizwelo, izinga lokushisa komzimba; ukuvusa ngocansi, iziqu zokulala (ukulala) nesistimu yezinzwa ezizimele kanye nesistimu ye-endocrine (hormone). Ngaphezu kwalokho, ilawula i-pituitary gland.

The pituitary ngokuvamile ubizwa ngokuthi 'i-gland master', ngoba ikhiqiza ama-hormone alawula amaningana amanye ama-endocrine noma ama-hormone. Ukwenza i-hormone yokukhula, ama-hormone wokukhulelwa, i-thyroid evuselela i-hormone, i-prolactin ne-Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (i-ACTH, evuselela i-hormone yokucindezeleka, i-cortisol). Futhi kwenza i-hormone ye-fluid balance ibizwa ngokuthi i-hormone anti-diuretic (ADH).

The amygdala ilawula ukucubungulwa kwememori, kodwa ingxenye enkulu ilawula imizwelo eyisisekelo njengokwesaba, intukuthelo nomhawu.

The i-hippocampus ihileleke ekucubungulweni kwenkumbulo. Le ngxenye yobuchopho ibalulekile ekufundeni nasekukhunjweni, ukuguqula inkumbulo yesikhashana kwimemori engapheli, nokukhumbula ubuhlobo bomhlaba emhlabeni ngathi.

The I-Nucleus Accumbens idlala indima ebalulekile kumjikelezi wokuvuza. Ukusebenza kwalo kusekelwe ngokuyinhloko kuma-neurotransmitter amabili abalulekile: i-dopamine okugqugquzela isifiso, kanye ne-serotonin abanobubi babo abandakanya ukuhlukumezeka nokuvinjelwa. Izifundo eziningi zezilwane zibonise izidakamizwa ngokuvamile zandisa ukwenziwa kwe-dopamine ku-nucleus accumbens, kuyilapho kunciphisa lokho i-serotonin. Kodwa i-nucleus accumbens ayisebenzi ngokuzihlukanisa. Igcina ubudlelwane obuseduze nabanye izikhungo ezihilelekile ezindleleni zokuzijabulisa, ikakhulukazi, nge indawo ye-ventral tegmental, obizwa nangokuthi i I-VTA.
Etholakala ebuchosheni obuphakathi, phezulu kobuchopho, i-VTA ingenye yezingxenye zokuqala zobuchopho. I-neurons ye-VTA eyenza i-dopamine, lapho ama-axon awo ayithumela ku-nucleus accumbens. I-VTA iphinde ithonywe yi-endorphins i-receptors ehloselwe izidakamizwa ze-opiate ezifana ne-heroin ne-morphine.

I-corox ye-Neocortex / cerebral. Kubizwa nangokuthi i-Neomammalian Brain

Lokhu kwakungokwakamuva 'kobuchopho' ukuguquka. I-cortex ye-cerebral ihlukaniswe ezindaweni ezilawula imisebenzi ethile. Izindawo ezehlukene zenza ulwazi kusuka ezinhliziyweni zethu, zisenze sibone, sizizwe, sizwe futhi sinambitheke. Ingxenyeni yangaphambili ye-cortex, i-cortex yangaphambili noma i-forebrain, iyindawo yokucabanga yobuchopho; linika ikhono lethu lokucabanga, ukuhlela, ukuxazulula izinkinga, ukuzithiba nokwenza izinqumo.

I-neocortex yokuqala ibheka ukubaluleka ezigodini futhi yafinyelela ekucabangeni kobuntu nezinkulu zayo ezimbili i-hemispheres ye-cerebral abadlala indima ebaluleke kangaka. Lezi zindawo ezithintekayo zibhekele ukuthuthukiswa kolimi lomuntu (c 15,000-70,000 eminyakeni edlule), umcabango ongacabangi, umcabango nokuqonda. I-neocortex iguquguqukayo futhi inamakhono okufunda angapheli. I-neocortex yilokho okwavumela amasiko abantu ukuba athuthukise.

Ingxenye yakamuva kakhulu ye-neocortex ukuguquka yiyona i-prefrontal cortex okwaqala cishe eminyakeni engu-500,000 edlule. Ngokuvame ukubizwa ngokuthi ubuchopho obukhulu. Lokhu kusinikeza izindlela zokuzithiba, ukuhlela, ukuqonda, ingqondo enengqondo, ukuqwashisa, nolwazi. Ibuye ihlangane nekusasa, ingqikithi yokucabanga kanye nokuziphatha okuhle. Kuyinto 'engqondweni' yobuchopho obudala obudala futhi isenza sikwazi ukuvimbela noma ukubeka amabhuleki ekuziphatheni okungenangqondo. Le nxenye entsha yocwaningo yingxenye esesakhiwe ngesikhathi sokukhula.

Ubuningi obuhlanganisiwe

Lezi zingxenye ezintathu zobuchopho, i-Reptilian, i-Limbic ne-Neocortex, azisebenzi ngokuzimela komunye nomunye. Bakhele ukuxhumana okuhlukahlukene lapho kuthonya khona omunye. Imigwaqo ye-neural esuka ohlelweni lwe-limbic eya ku- i-cortex, zithuthuka ngokukhethekile.

Imizwelo inamandla kakhulu futhi isishukumisela kusuka ezingeni elingenakuqaphela. Imizwelo yinto eyenzeka kithi okuningi kunokuthi sinquma ukwenza kwenzeke. Iningi lenkcazelo yalokhu ukungabi namandla okulawula imizwelo yethu ikhona ngendlela ubuchopho bomuntu obuxhunyiwe ngayo.

Ubuchopho bethu buguquke ngendlela yokuthi banokuxhumana okude kakhulu okuvela ezinkampanini zemizwelo kuya kwi-cortex yethu (i-locus yokulawula okuqaphelayo) kunanoma iyiphi enye indlela. Ngamanye amazwi, umsindo womgwaqo omkhulu osheshayo ogijima emlenzeni we-limbic kuya ku-cortex ungagxuma umsindo okhudlwana emgwaqweni ongcolile osebenza ngakolunye uhlangothi.

Ubuchopho obushintshayo obulethwa ukulutha umlutha kufaka ukukhishwa kwe-grey cell (cell cells) e-prefrontal cortex ngenqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi 'ukungazenzisi'. Lokhu kunciphisa izibonakaliso ezingavimbela emuva ebuchosheni bomzimba okwenza kube nzima ukugwema ukwenza ukuziphatha okwenziwe kokubili okugqugquzelayo nokucindezela.

Ukufunda indlela yokuqinisa i-correx ye-prefrontal, futhi ngokuzithiba kwethu, iyinhlangano yokuphila ebalulekile kanye nesisekelo sempumelelo empilweni. Ingqondo engaqeqeshwanga noma ubuchopho obungalinganiselwe ukulutha umuthi kungase kufezeke kakhulu.

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